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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ecology
the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments
abiotic components
nonliving chemical and physical factors such as temperature, light, water, and nutrients
biotic components
living and all the other organisms that are part of any individual's environment
organismal ecology
concerned with teh behavioral, physiological, and morphological ways in which individual organisms meet the challenges posed by their abiotic environment
population
a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area
community
consists of all the organisms that inhabit a particular area
ecosystem
all the abiotic factors in addition to the community of species that exists in a certain area
biosphere
global ecosystem
climate
temperature, water, light, and wind
biome
major types of ecosystems
tropics
lie between 23.5 north latitude and 23.5 south latitude and experience the greatest annual input and the least seasonal variation in solar radiation
turnover
brings oxygenated water from teh surface of lakes to the bottom and nutrient rich water from the bottom to the surface in both spring and autumn
photic zone
sufficient light for photosynthesis
aphotic zone
little light penetrates
thermocline
separates a more uniformly warm upper layer from more uniformly cold deeper waters
benthic zone
made up of sand and organic and inorganic sediments
benthos
communities of organisms living in benthic zone
detritus
major source of food for the benthos
littoral zone
shallow, well-lit waters close to shore
limnetic zone
occupied by a variety of phytoplankton consisting of algae and cyanobacteria
profundal zone
deep aphotic region
oligotrophic
deep, nutrient-poor, and the phytoplankton in the limnetic zones are not very productive
eutrophic
shallower and the nutrient content of their water is high
mesotrophic
between the oligotrophic and eutrophic extremes are lakes with a moderate amount of nutrients and phytoplankton productivity
wetland
area covered with water that supports aquatic plants
estuary
the area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean
intertidal zone
the zone where land meets water
neritic zone
the shallow regions over the continental shelves
oceanic zone
past the continental shelf reaching very great depthcs
pelagic zone
open water of any depth
benthic zone
the bottom of seafllor
coral reefs
a conspicuous and distinctive biome in warm tropical waters
oceanic pelagic biome
constantly mixed by ocean currents lying far from shore
abyssal zone
deep benthic zone
regulators
use behavioral and physiological mechanisms to achieve homeostasis in the face of environmental fluctuations in temperature, moisture, light intensity, and concentrations of a variety of chemical factors
conformers
aloow some conditions within their bodies to vary with external changes
principle of allocation
each organism has a limited amount of energy that can be allocated for obtaining nutrients, escaping from predators, coping with environmental fluctuations (maintaining homeostasis), growth, and reproduction