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78 Cards in this Set

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Ideal body weight for men
bases on height and weight, 106 pounds for the first 5ft. of height and 6 pounds for each additional inch.
Ideal body weight for women
100 pounds for the first 5ft. of height and 5pds.for each additional inch.
current weight framework
%IBW+=current weight X10
ideal weight
physical signs and symptoms suggesive of malnution
hair that is brittle, dry, or falls out easily, swollen glands of the neck and checks, dry, rough, spotty skin that may have sandpaper feel, poor or delayed wound healthing or sores, thin appearance with lack of subcutaneous fat, muscle waisting (decreasing size and strengh, edema in the lower extremities, weakened hand grasps, deressped mood, abnormal heart rythm, or blood pressure, enlarged liver and sleen, and loss of balance and coordination.
factors that impact nutrition
illeracy, langauge barrier, limited knowledge of nurtrion and food safety, atlered or impaired intake related to religion, lack of caregiver or cocial support system, social isolation, lack of inadequate cooking arrangemenets, limited lower income, limited acess to transportation to obtain food, advanced age (80), lack of or extreme physical activity, use of tabacoo or recreational drugs, and limited use of knowledge of community resoures.
Serum albumin is the most abundant blood plasma protein and is produced in the liver and forms a large proportion of all plasma protein.
Lab treatments for nutrition
Most lab test are taken to see how much albumin is in the blood, some urine test can also be taken.
prealblumin, also known as Thyroxin binding protein
is another lab test for malnutrition, but the cost is much more and less frequently done.
nursing diagnosis
they provide written documentation of the clients nutritional status and is the framework of how the clients care will be cared for.
some nursing diagnoses with nutritional relevance
altered nutrition: more than the body requires, altered nutrition: less than the body requires, altered nutrition: risk for more than body requirements, constipation, diarrhea, fluid volume excess, fluid volume deficit, risk for aspiration, altered oral mucous membrane, altered denitition, impaired skin integrity, noncompliance (with prescribed drugs), impaired swallowing, knowledge deficit (about nutrition theapy), pain, nausea.
dietians responsibility
planning and implemenating for the high risk clients that are malnutritioned.
Nursing responibility
planning and implementating for the low risk or mild risk for nutritional problems.
Nutritional status
the state of balance between nutrient supply (intake) and demand requirement. An imbalance beween intake and requirement can result in overnutrition and under nutrition.
Changes in nutritional staus
because changes in weight may be slow or occur, they are more reflective of chronic, not acute.
formulating goals
goals should be measurable, attainable, specific, and client centered.
Nursing interventions
promoting an adequate and appropriate intake, teaching the client about nutrition, and monitoring the clients response.
Nutrition therapy
is a meaning used in the place of the word "diet".
Nutritional screen
a quick look at the few variables to judge a clients relative risk for nutritional problems. Can be custom designed for a particular population, (pregnant, caridiac disease).
Client teaching
Is best done when the nurse and the dietitian work together with the client. The nurse is there to reassure the client and suggest some things to change about their eating habits, and the dietian is there to back it up and talk more indepth about nutrition and how it plays a role in their own situation.
a precursor (a compound that participates in the chemical reaction that produces another compound) to evaluation in which you watch and document the impact of interventions on the client on an ongoing basis so that immediate concerns can be quickly addresses.
EX: observe intake whenever possible to judge adequacy, document appetite and take action when the client does not eat, order supplements if intake is low or needs are high, request a nurtritional consult, assess tolerace (absence of side affects), monitor progress (weight gain), Monitor diets on restricted diets, monitor the cliets grasp on the information and motivation to change.
decided whether to continue, change, or abolish the plan. If a goal that was set is not being met you would first want to counsel the client about what it is he is suppose to be doing and why, if that dont work, bring in the dietian, he will explain how to not so much use food as a food eaten for pleasure, but more for a medical treatment, if that fails too, then the plan must change, the nurse must get a hold of all that are involved and more than likely get him on a feeding tube.
Carbohydrates Classification
classified as either simple carbohydrates or complex, based on the number of single molecules they contain.
a class of energy yielding nurtients that contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Hence the abbreviation for carbohydrates is CHO.
single carbohydrates
a classification of carbs that includes monosaccharides and disaccarides, commonly referred to as sugars.
single (mono) molucules of sugar, saccharide.
double sugar, composed of two (di) monosaccarides
carbs consisting of many (poly) sugar molecules
complex carbohydrates
a group name for starch, glycogen, and fiber; composed of long chains of glucose molecules
the storage form of glucose in plants
storage form of glucose in animals and humans
Dietary Fiber
carbs. and lignin that are natural and intact components of plants that cannot be digested by human enzymes.
Monosaccharides are:
Frutose, galactose, and glucose they are the simplest of all sugars containing only one (mono) sugar (saccharide) molecule. As basic units these sugar molecules are absorbed "as is" without undergoing digestion.
Glucose (dextose)
is the sugar of greatest distinction; it circulates through the body to provide energy for the body cells; it is the sugar the body converts all other digestible carbs. to. In food gluclose is found in, fruit, honey, corn syrup and cornstarch.
(fruit sugar) is found natually in fruit and honey. It is the sweetest of all natural sugars.
does not occur in appreciable amounts in foods; it is significant only as it combines with glucose to form the disaccharide lactose.
Sucrose (commonly called table sugar)
is composed of glucose and fructose.
composed of two joined glucose molecules, not found natually in foods, but it occurs as an intermediate in starch digestion.
Lactose (milk sugar)
composed of glucose and galatose. It is the CHO found natually in milk and is used as an additive in many foods and drugs.
glycogen storage
glycogen is stored in the liver and the muscles. Liver glycogen breaks down and releases glucose levels and provide fuel for tissues. Muscles do not share their supply, but use it for their own energy.
Physiological functions of Fiber:
fiber is generally a mixture of nondigestible polysaccaharides that are part of the plant cell wall or intercellural structure. There are 2 main categories that play a part in the physiological function, insoluable fiber and soluble fibers.
functional fiber
as proposed by the food and national board, functional fiber consists of extracted or isolated nondigestible CHO that have beneficial physiological effects in humans.
Total Fiber
Total fiber = dietary fiber + added fiber
insoluble fiber
nondigestible CHO that do not dissolve in water
Soluble fiber
nondigestible CHO that dissolve to a gummy, visous texture.
glucose, fructose and galactose: how they function
they all arrive at the liver via potal vein where fuctose and galactose are converted to glucose.
CHO digestion
digestion starts in the mouth, where the food is chewed into pieces and salivary amylase (is the name given to glycoside hydrolase enzymes that break down starch into glucose molecules) begins the process of chemical digestion. The stomach churns and mixes the CHO, but stomach acids halt residual action of the salivary amylase. The small intestine is the site of most CHO digestion, and pancreatic amylase reduces complex CHO into disaccharides. Disaccharide enzmes (maltase, sucrase, and lactase) on the surface of the intestine cells split maltose, sucrose and lactose into monosaccharides, thus completing the process of CHO digestion.
Fiber is not digested per se, but most is fermented by bacteria in the large intenstine to yield gas, water and short chain fatty acid.
Glycemic response
the effect a food has on the blood glucose concentration; how quickly the glucose level rises, how it goes, and how long it takes to return to normal.
Glymemic index
is a ranking system for carbohydrates based on their effect on blood glucose levels. It compares available carbohydrates gram for gram in individual foods, providing a numerical, evidence-based index of postprandial (post-meal) glycemia. (Glycemia is the concentration of glucose in the blood )
Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy store in animal cells. It is the analogue of starch, a less branched glucose polymer in plants, and is commonly referred to as animal starch, having a similar structure to amylopectin (Amylopectin (CAS# 9037-22-3) is a highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylose. It is soluble in water.)
Epinephrine (stress hormone)
a hormone influences blood glucose concentration. it is secreted by the adrenal gland. Epinephrine is quickly released during times of stress to make extra energy available for the "flight or fight" response.
It works by stimulating the release of glucose from glycogen and inhibiting the secrection of insulin.
is a stage in metabolism occurring when the liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies which can be used by the body for energy
Keytone bodies
intermediate, acidic compounds formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat when adequeate glucose is not available.
The use of Gluclose to make other compounds
after energy needs are met, exess gluscose can be converted to glycogen, be used to make nonessential amino acids and specific body compounds, or be converted to fat and stored.
Refined Grains and Refined Flours
consists of only the endosperm (middle part) of the grain and therefore do not contain the bran and germ protions.
Whole Grains and Whole Grain Flour
contain the entire grain, or seed, which includes the endosperm (middle part), bran and germ.
Recommened Dietary Allowance
Health benefits of Fiber
Fiber is important for maintaing health and preventing disease. High fiber foods such as vegtables, whole grains, legumes and fruit are also a major source of micronutrients and phytochemicals (Phytochemicals are plant or fruit derived chemical compounds. "Phytonutrients" refer to phytochemicals or compounds that come from edible plants)
that may be protective against chronic diseases.
Fiber and constipation
the most consistent benifit of consuming fiber is to relive or prevent constipation. The increase in stool weight is attributed to the fiber content in the stool, the water the fiber holds, and the increase in the amount of bacteria in the stool from fermentation of fiber in the colon.
LDL - cholesterol
Bad Fats, LDL cholestrerol, which is a major cause of coronary heart disease. Saturated fats are clearly "bad fats". Hydrogenated fats are bad because they are more saturated than the oil from which they are made and often contrain tran fats.
Type 2 diabetes
Studies with type 2 diabetes suggest that high fiber intakes lower the need for insulin.
fiber is the CHO
that remains after digestion
Sugar is blammed for a variety of health problems
Behavior problems in children,(however evidence is lacking) obesity,(is a complex problem that cannot be simply blammed on sugar, to many calories and eating too much) diabetets millitus,too many calories and too much body weight are the problem, not the sugar) and heart disease, (High sugar diets in particular are linked to increased triglyceride levels and increased risk of coronary disease.
The downside of sugar
avoiding too much sugar is prudent because sugar promotes dental caries and provides empty calories that may make it difficult to consume adequate levels of nutrients without exceeding calorie needs.
artifical sweetners
snythetically made sweetners that do not provide calories.
one pound equals?
3500 calories
the storage form of CHO in plants is made from hundreds to thousands of gluclose molecules
acceptable Daily intake (ADI)
the estimated amount of artifical sweetener per kilogram of body weight that a person can safely consume every day over a lifetime without risk; usually reflects an amount 100 times les than the maximum level at which no observed adverse effects have occured in animal studies.
commonly referred to as fats, include triglycerides (fats and oils) phospholipids (lecithin) and sterols (cholesterol).
a class of lipids composed of a glycerol molecule as its backbone with 3 fatty acids attached.
proteins produced by cells that catalyze chemical reactions within the body without undergoing change.
an organic molecule that activates an enzyme
free radicals
highly unstable highly reactive molecular fragments with one or more unpaired electrons.
a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen, the loss of electrons in an atom
substances that donate electrons to free radicals to prevent oxidation
food additive
a substance added intentionally or unintentionally to food that affects its character.
Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. These occur naturally in food and can also be taken as supplements. Folate gets its name from the Latin word folium ("leaf").
preformed vitamin A
the active form of vitamin A
a group name of retinol precursors found in plants.