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79 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Canton System of Trade
China only let westerners trade in Canton and nowhere else.
East India Trading Company
Acted as moderators to accomodate the Chinese.
Co Hong
13 Merchant houses assigned to deal with the foreign traders.
4 Restrictions on Western Traders in Canton
1. Cannot directly contact government officials
2. Cannot bring women to Canton
3. Could not enter the city itself
4. Once trading season was over they had to leave
Chinese-English Trade

Tea VS Opium
At first England paid silver for chinese tea. Then opium was discovered and china began paying silver for opium.
Opium
Eventually banned from china, smuggling ensued.
1839 Commissioner Lin
Sent to Canton ot enforce anti-opium laws
British Response to Commissioner Lin and ban of Opium
Sent Military
Began Opium War
Opium War (AngloChinese war)
China which had fallen behind on military technology fell to the western powers and forced to sign unequal treaties
Treaty of Nanjing
Provisions:
1. Open five treaty ports: Shanghai and Canton etc
2. Hong Kong became part of England
3. Western powers get extra-territorial rights
4. China must pay for destroyed the products
5. Westerns control the tariffs.
Other treaties (China after nanjing)
Loss of territories, loss of rights, China was open and being bled.
Choson (Yi) Dynasty
Korean Dynasty during the Ming
General Yi Songgyo
General who was sent to fight off the Ming but decided it was a bad idea and turned the army around and overthrew the reigning dynasty.
Choson-Ming relations
Tributary relationship
Yalu and Tumen
Rivers which were officially labeled as the boundaries between Korea and China
Korean Confucian State
Adopted Chinese Six Ministries
Chinese criminal code: coverted into the Korean Legal Code
Civil service exam taken but limited to upper class.
1485 Korea
Chinese criminal code converted to Korean Legal Code
Korean Class System
1. Yangban
2. Chungin
3. Yangmin
Yangban
Hereditary ruling class; estates owners
Chungin
Middle class, semi-educated, subordinates, and specialists
Yangmin
Commoners "base people"

Butchers, prostitues, actors
Impact of Neo-confucianism (korea)
Decline in the status of women
Excluded from family inheritance
Could not initiate divorce
Economy (korea)
Still backwards and based on agricuture, farmers still near serfs

Massive poverty
Land (korea)
Monopolized by large land owners
Commerce (korea)
monopolized by large merchant families
Decline of Buddhism (Korea)
New dynasty tried ot control the expansion by combining different schools into just two schools
Upsurge of Confucian Scholarship

(Korea)
More books published on confucianism due to the moveable type, encyclopedias
Korean Writing Systme
Han'gul
Painting (korea)
borrowed song dynasty

High class: landscapes and nature

Lower Class: houses and figures
Japanese Invasion
1592-1598 Ming intervention,
Successful at first, destryoed relics and libraries
Opening of Korea
Done by Japan Mid 19th century
Sohak
Western Learning
Christianity (korea)
Leaders cracked down on missionary movements
Missionaries snuck in
1894-1895
Sino-Japanese War
1876
Japanese Intrusion and Kanghwa treaty
Kanghwa Treaty
1. Japan declares Korea independent
2. Korean king must open treaty ports to japan
Other things caused by Kanghwa Treaty
breakdown of coastal fortifications
China- Sino-japanese war
Tried to intervine but they no longer had that kind of power because of the opium war
Defeated by japan and forced to recognize japan's dominance over korea
Pro-Japanese faction in Korea
Says that korea must turn their backs on china and modernize with Japan
1910
Japan annexs korea and taiwan,
both obtained from the sino-japanese war
Han (japan)
Domains
Southern Japan in reference to western technology
All competeing for trade. Want weapons to help fight each other with the constant civil war going on.
Two main western powers in Japan
Portuguese and Dutch
Influx of Western Technology
Veeeeerrry little resistance
1549
Francis Xavier
Christiantiy and Daimyos
Attraction, and they did learn about it. Nothing major. Use it as a counter-weight to balance the very powerful Buddhist sects
Samurai and Christianity
Did not accept it but was impressed with the structure and Dicipline
Dutch
Dominated connection with japanese, more interested in trade then spreading religion
Eventual Persecution of Christians
Samurai prevented from becoming christians
Shimbara Rebellion 1637-1638
Was not a religious uprising but because the group was 99% christian the daimyo blamed it on that.
"Closing" of Japan
Beginning of the 17th century
Policy of Seclusion 1639
Closing off of everyone except the Dutch and the Dutch must follow terms
Terms for Dutch to stay in Nagasaki
1. Must stay in Nagasaki and must be supervised by Samurai Bureaucrats.
2. Must pay tribute to Edo
3. At regular intervals, prove disintrest in Christianity
4. Do not bring Christians on the ships
5. Keep japanese government informed on current events in europe and new technologies
Rise of Tokugawa Shogunate
1. Change in Samurai: Ready-made officials warrior/scholar/bureaucrat
2. Increase in domestic trade
3. Continual consolidation of Control
Oda Nobunaga Southern Daimyo 1534-1584
Seized Kyoto 1568
Went north towards old Kamakura area
Murdered by one of his generals
Toyotomi Hideyoshi 1536-1598
Murdered the murderer and continued Oda's work and conquered most Daimyo land
Tokugawa Leyasu 1542-1616
Edo; 1600 defeated all the Daimyos and imposed his leadership
Han (daiymo domain)System
1. Land given to clan members (closest to edo)
2. Land given to generals
3. Land to owners who pledge allegiance to the tokugawa
Sankin-kotai system
Hostage system: must travel to edo every other year and leave behind a family member as a hostage to make sure you didn't go against the emperor
National passport
needed to travel to edo
Traveling added to a sense of national identity
Four Class Theory
1.Samurai/Official/Scholar
2. Famers
3. Artisans
4. Merchants
Yamamoto
wrote a scathing inditment against the new samurai. Hagakura written in the 18th century. He condemned the samurai for becoming soft. "It's our mission to die!" Maintain Bushido
Merchants (japan)
On the same level as the samurai . Custodians of the nation's wealht. Never looked down upon or discrimated against.
Genroku
Urban Excitement and entertainment quotas
Center in Osaka, then Edo
Decline in status of women
Geisha, not prostittues
Haiku
The pond is frozen
The duck has nowhere to go
He is very sad.
Kabuki
At first full of violence and sex, live preformances on stage. Eventually banned.

Brought back but no females allowed to preform
Rangaku
Dutch learning, learning of the west

Liberal group of scholar
Kokugaku
National learning and shinto
Motoori Norinaga
Wrote books on the mission of japan to civilize the world and that the sun goddess was a universal ideology that should be embraced
Requests from Perry ____ & 1854
1. Protection of American Seamen in Japan
2. Provisions, opening up a few ports
3. A coaling station for ships
4.Trading relations with Japan
Letter from Perry
Adressed to the emperor. Tokugawa showed it around asking for opinion. Only came as a weakness in the tokugawa
1854 Treaty of Hanagawa
Agreed to open two ports
Shimoda and Hakodate
Original requests must be met
American Council in Edo
1858 Treaty of Edo
Extra Territoriality
Terms to Embarass the Tokugawa
Disgrace to the emperor
Return power to the emperor
Must modernize to make Japan one of the Imperial Powers
1867 Change in Emperor
Old emperor died and 17 year old takes over as the Meiji Emperor
Meiji Restoration
Young emperor and anti-tokugawa groups fought against the tokugawa and won.
Effects of the Meiji Restoration
1. Marked the end of fuedalism
2. Restoration of the emperor to a seat of some sort of power and importance
3. Emperor fully supportive of moderization
Modernization of japan
Eventually able to shake off treaties, moderize and become hella merchants.