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101 Cards in this Set

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3rd ventricle tumor with single layer of mucin-producing columnar epithelium with a ciliated apical surface
Colloid cyst
neoplasm arising in the suprasellar region of children, from misplaced odontogenic epithelium-> contains abundant calcium deposits
craniopharyngioma
cyst that develops following ingestion of Tenia solium, with three cell layers, the most supperficial rebembles dome-shaped urothelial cells
cysticercosis
cyst with tiny hook like projection, accumulating in liver and lung, from dog feces
Echinococus cyst
tumor with cystic structure, consist of elongated astrocytes within an abundant fibrillary background and numerous Rosenthal fibers
pilocystic astrocytoma
OCD Tx
TCA + SSRI
Clomipramine
TCA
Buspirone
non-benzo anxiolytic
Chlopromazine
antipsychotic drug
imipramine
TCA
Phenelzine
MAO
Zolpidem
non-benzo hypnotic
Boerhaave's syndrome
lower esophageal rupture, after extensive vomiting
DiGeorge syndrome
failure of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches to develop-> absence of the parathyroid glands and thymus
Dressler's syndrome
pericarditis following MI
Dubin-Johnson syndrome
inherited cause of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Osler-Weber-Rendu disease
hederitary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, present at births @ skin, oral, alimentary, resp, urinary, liver, brain, spleen
non-infectious lung non-caseating graunloma
sarcoidosis-> pulmonary fibrosis
biopsy + fluorescent ab test
direct fluorescent antibody test, used to detect foreign antigens dificult to visualize or culture
erythrocytes + patient serum + anti-human immunoglobulin
indirect Coombs test
use of indirect Coombs test
autoimmune hemolytic anemias, hemolytic disease of the newborn
patient lymphocyte+ antiserum + complement
microcytotoxicity for HLA calss I analysis
patient lymphocyte+ irrediated allogenic lymphocytes
mixed lymphocyte rxn, for HLA class II antigens
Strep, alpha-hemolytic
pneumococcus
corticosteriods on bone cells
inhibit proliferation and function of osteoblasts and stimulate osteoclast diferentiation and activity
antibiotics in pseudomembranous colitis
clindamycin, sephalosporins and amoxicillin
vagus injury, to which side uvula deviates
opposite
most common causes of broncogenic carcinoma-> superior vena cava syndrome
small-cell>epidermoid>adenocarcinoma> large cell carcinoma
malignancy causing dyspnea, facial eruthema, and facial, truncal and arm edema, with prominence of thoracic and neck veins
SVC syndrome
HTLV-1 leukemia mechanism
oncogene capture or provirus insertion
HPV malignancy mechanism
E6 and E7 inactivate tumor supressors p53 and p110
retinoblastoma mech
inactivation of 2 anti-oncogenes
Kinefelter hormone levels
dec testosterone (leydig dysfuntion)-> inc LH-> inc estrogen; dysgenesis of seminiferous tubes-> dec inhibin-> inc FSH
when does implantation occurs
2-3 days after fertilization
loss of zona pelucida prerequisite for
apposition of the blastocyst to the uterine epithelium
where does fertilization occurs
in the ampula of uterine tube
transient global amnesia suggests
TIA in the posterior cerebral teritorry; also migraine and epileptic attacks
HCl secretion after meal in ZE syndrome
does not increase, since stomach gastrin secretion has been suppressed by excessive gastric acid; it does not increase after a meal
antrum G cells in ZE syndrome
decresea, due to suppresion by excessive acid levels
basilar artery stroke
locked-in syndrome
Internal Carotid Artery stroke
compensated by collateral
None
SCA stroke
ataxia and dysarthria
IBD with primary sclerosing cholangitis
UC
very dilated biliary tree terminating in a blunt, nipple-like obstruction at the lower end of the common bile duct
carcinoma of the pancreas
moderately dilated intrahepatic bile ducts and stricture in the bile duct at the porta hepatis
carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts
presents in the lung as hemorrhagic infarctions, fungus balls in cavitary tuberculosis cavities, or as allergic bronchopulmonary ***
Aspergillus fumigatus in lung
Entamoeba histolytica lung abscess
as extension of a liver aabscess across the diaphragm
14 yo female with primary amenorrhea, shortened vagina with no discernible cervix or uterus, inc LH
complete androgen resistance (XY)
complete androgen resistance path
absence of androgen receptors, the indifferent external genital slit-> vagina with clitoris and labia, but blind sac due to Mullerian regression factor, Wolffian tducts will also degenerate in the absence of androgen receptor;
female with 17-a-hydroxylase deficiency
born with normal internal and external; no puberty due to failure to produce estrogens
Goodpasteur syndrome
autoantibodies to basement membrane damages lung and kidneys (type IV collagen)
collagen found in epiphyseal plates
type X
axon retrograde transport mechanism
uses microtubules, mediated by dyenin and transports lysosomes and recycled membrane
4 examples of retrograde transport path
hespesvirus, poliovirus, rabies virus, tetanus toxin
anterograde tranport
uses microtubules, mediated by kinesin and moves vesicles and proteins to the axon terminal
child with partial intestinal obstruction, mass surrounding the mid-duodenum
annular pancreas
gray baby syndrome- vomit, ashen-gray skin color
chloramphenicol adverse rxn, infants are unable to break down-> CV collapse, gray skin
chloramphenicol mech
inhibits ribosomal peptidyl transferase
antibiotic blocks initiation complex formation, used in vanco-resistant infections
linezolid
cause misreading at translation initiation, used for gram - rods
aminoglycosides such as streptomycin and gentamicin
interfere with translation translocation
macrolides such as erythromycin, used for gram+ cocci, Chlamydia, mycoplasma, legionella, campylobacter
prevents binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to ribosomes
tetracyclines, for Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, H pylori, Rickettsia, Brucella, Vibrio, acne
MEN III
AD, medullary carcinoma, pheo, oral and intestinal ganglioneuromatosis
MEN with gastrinomas and insulinomas
MENI
MEN with parathyroid adenomas
MEN I, II
MEN with pituitary adenomas
MEN I
Steps in defecation reflex
internal anal sphinter relaxes, external contracts, conscious urge to defecate
innervation of defecation reflex: pelvic nerve:
parasympathetic innervation of internal anal sphinter, and sensory afferent from rectum to spinal cord
innervation of defecation reflex: pudendal:
somatic efferent inputs to the external anal sphinter
brachial plexus segment compressed by axillary aneurism
cords
branch of the posterior cord that leaves the axillary sheath, then exits the axilla through the quandrangular space to innervate the deltoid muscle
axillary nerve
arises from the anterior rami of fifth, sixth ans seventh cervical nerves in the neck and courses along the chest wall to innervate the serratus anterior muscle
long thoracic nerve
formed in the neck from the anterior ramy of the eight cervical and first thoracic spinal nerves
lower trunk
araises as a branch of the lateral cord and enters the arm to innervate the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm
musculocutaneous nerve
plasmacytoma
solitary myeloma, involving soft tissue, is a plasma cell proliferation resembling multiple myeloma but without significant metastatic potential
plasmacytomas that might develop into multiple myeloma
the ones involving the bone
group of rare lymphoplasmacytic malignancies in which excessive amount of defective heavy immunoglobulin chain are produced (G, A, M); malignant cells are usually present in the marrow
heacy chain disease
malignancy of lymphoplasmacytic cells that secrete IgM; with marrow diffusely infiltrated by lymphocytes, plasma cells and hybrid forms
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia
nerve laying between palmaris longus and FCR tendons
median nerve
median nerve cords
lateral and medial
musculocutaneous cords
lateral alone
trunks that do not give rise to any nerves
middle and lower
upper trunk nerves
sublcavius, suprascapular
nerves from the posterior cord
axillary and radial nerve
necrotic nucleus
washed out (karyolysis), compact (pyknotic) or fragmented (karyorrhexis)
most common proteins in hederitary spherocytosis
spectrin and ankyrin
methemoglobin
Fe +2-> Fe +3, cannot bind O2
defect in congenital methemoglobinemia
NADH-methemoglobin reductase
part of the lesser omentum that separates the greater peritoneal sac from the right portion of the lesser peritoneal sac
gastrohepatic ligament
mesenteric membrane between the liver and the anterior abdominal wall
falciform ligament, within the greater peritoneal sac
layer of fascia for lipo
camper fascia
mass above pituitary, cystic lesion filled with dark, oily fluid containing granular derbis
craniopharyngioma
pick disease
frontal symptoms in conjunction with a fromtotemporal atrophy= frontotemporal dementia
Lewy body disease Cx
extrapyramidal symptoms similar to PD
Conn syndrome
primary hyperaldo
innervated by superficial peroneal nerve
peroneus longus, brevis, skin of the dorsum of foot
muscles innervated by deep peroneal nerve
extensor digitorum brevis, longus, hallucis longus, peroneus tertius
mean systemic pressure in CO vs RAP diagram
venous return curve x intercept
basophilic rhomboid crystals in joint
calcium pyrophosphate
softening and cavitation around the central canal of the spinal cord damages crossing fibers STT
syringomyelia, assoc to Arnold-Chiari
nonfluent aphasia due to damage to the inferior frontal gyrus
Brocas