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### 44 Cards in this Set

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 Labels or names for a characteristic: Qualitative Data (Categorical) Process of transforming something our senses can’t perceive into something they can perceive: Measurement TYPE OF DATA How tall was a single student on each of her Birthdays? Time Series Data An entity or object on which data are collected: Element (also called a case or an individual) Values of measurement that can take on a ‘natural’ or ‘absolute’ zero: Ratio Level (How much is A/B?) Measurement of a variable or variables on a single element: Observation Measurement of a variable or variables on a single element: Quantitative Data (Cardinal) Values of measurement that convey the relationships or ranks of the elements w/ respect to their values for the variable in question: Ordinal Level (is A > B? is A < B?) Characteristic of the elements whose value may differ from element to element and is of interest to the data collector: Variable Values of measurement that represent a category or group membership of elements: Nominal Level (is A = B?) Data in which values are collected from many entities during a given period of time: Cross-Sectional Data TYPE OF MEASUREMENT What Is The High Temperature Today? ___ (Fahrenheit) Continuous Interval Measurements that are collected, recorded, and summarized for presentation, analysis, and interpretation: Data Manipulation of the values (or levels) of one or more (independent) variables or treatments and observation of the corresponding change in the values of one or more (dependent) variables or responses: Experimentation Data used to answer a question other than that for which they were originally intended: Secondary Data Values of measurement that convey how much more or less one value is less than another value: Interval Level (how much is A - B?) TYPE OF MEASUREMENT How Many Automobiles Do You Currently Own? ___ (Number) Discrete Ratio Data collected by the user to to answer a specific question: Primary Data -Survey collection(observation) -Experimentation A summary measure used to describe values of a variable for the entire population: Parameter The art and science of collecting, describing, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting data: Statistics TYPE OF MEASUREMENT What Is Your Annual Income? ________ (\$) Continuous Ratio Data in which values are collected from a single entity over several (usually successive) time periods: Time Series Data Selection of a proportion of the population and measurement or observation of the values of the variables in question for the selected elements: Survey/Observation What type of data includes newspapers, magazines, books, on-line databases, govt. publications, and websites? Secondary Data Collection of all possible elements of interest: Population An estimate of the value of a parameter based on the elements that belong to the sample: Statistic (can be descriptive or inferential) Science of numerically measuring the likelihood that a given event will occur(i.e. use of deductive logic): Probability TYPE OF DATA How tall is each student in this class? Cross-Sectional Data Collection of the values for all variables of interest that correspond to all elements of a population: Census -data TELLS/SAYS something to us -size of census denoted 'N' Tabular, graphical, and numerical methods used to summarize one or more characteristics of a population or a sample: Descriptive Statistics Sampling in which all samples of size n are equally likely: Simple Random Sampling Using data obtained through sampling to estimate the value of or test a hypothesis about a parameter: Inferential Statistics (i.e., use of INDUCTIVE logic) A collection of elements that comprise a subset of the population: Sample -data SUGGESTS/IMPLIES something to us -size of sample denoted 'n' Data collected at the same point in time: Cross-sectional data How many observations are there in a complete data set having 10 elements and 5 variables? 10 What is the most common type of observational study? Survey What type of data is this? The number of building permits issued in Dalls, Texas in each of the last 36 months. Time series data Unusually large and small values in a data set: Outliers INFERENTIAL/DESCRIPTIVE Statistics: A histogram depicting the age distribution for 30 randomly selected professors. Descriptive Data that is collected over several time periods: Time series data INFERENTIAL/DESCRIPTIVE Statistics: An estimate of the number of Alaska residents who have visited Canada. Inferential What type of data is this? The number of building permits issued in December 2004 in each of the counties of Texas. Cross-sectional data The scores on a test would be an example of measurement at which level? Interval level You measure the width (in inches) of a number of fabric samples. This would be an example of measurement at which level? Ratio level