Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/9

Click to flip

9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Bacteria cause disease by which two MECHANISMS?
1) Toxin- mediated disease

2) Invasion and Inflammation
What is are 2 examples of TOXIN MEDIATED DISEASE?
1) Botulism: caused by clostridial toxin, and you do not have to ingest the organism

2) Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin: the most common food-borne diarrheal disease in the US
How do INVASION AND INFLAMMATION cause disease?
Disease occurs via direct tissue invasion and then tissue damage occurs because of OVER- REACTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE from the host.
What are the pathogenic steps in establishing bacterial infections by ingesting toxin?
1) Toxins preformed in food

2) Ingestion of microorganisms with adherence, colonization, and TOXIN FORMED IN GUT
What are two examples of TOXINS PREFORMED IN FOOD?
1) Clostridium botulism, preformed in food, is ingested

2) S. aureus enterotoxin preformed in contaminated food (Disease can occur in the absense of the organism)
What are two examples of microorganisms that adhere, colonize, and form toxins in the gut?
1) Infant botulism: organisms in the honey form toxins when it is in the gut because the lumen in anaerobic

2) Vibrio cholerae: intestinal colonization followed by secretion of cholera toxin
What are 4 general characteristics of CLOSTRIDIUM?
1) OBLIGATE ANAEROBE

2) Location of spore in the bacterium may aid in species identification

3) CATALASE NEGATIVE

4) OXIDASE NEGATIVE

What are 4 species of CLOSTRIDIUM?
1) C. botulinum: noninvasive, causing BOTULISM and can be an agent to of bioterrorism

2) C. tetani: generally noninvasive, causitive agent of TETANUS

3) C. difficile: noninvasive, secreted toxin causing pseudomembranous entercolitis (can cause DIARRHEA)

4) C. perfringens: VERY INVASIVE, CAUSES GANGRENE

5) C. septicum: invasice in MALIGNANCY

6) C. ramosum

7) other invasive clostridial species
What are 4 things that contribute to PATHOGENESIS of Clostridium?
1) BOTULISM TOXIN: cause of flaccid paralysis

2) TETANUS TOXIN: causes of tetanus

3) EXOTOXINS A & B: cause of diarrhea in PSEUDOMEMBRANE COLITIS because of C. difficile

4) ALPHA TOXIN: lecithinase which is lysed in host cell membrane- - this is in combination with other enzymes as the cause of "gas gangrene" due to C. perfringens