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173 Cards in this Set

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Who is the Father of Microbiology?
Anton Van Leeuwenhooek
Who was credited with the development of the compound microscope?
Hooke and Jensens
Microscopic organisms were believed to arise from soil, dead plants and animals, or meat broth. This incorrect theory is known as?
Spontaneous generation
The correct theory that organisms arise from pre-existing organisms of the same species is called?
Biogenesis
Who is credited with the final proof of biogenesis?
Louis Pasteur
What two people were credited with discoveries about Puerperal sepsis/Childbirth fever?
Semmelweiss and Oliver Wendell Holmes
Who coined the word germ?
Oliver Wendell Holmes
Who developed immunizations against rabies and anthrax?
Louis Pasteur
At what temperature and for how long do you pasteurize something?
62.8 degrees celcius for 30 minutes
What are the four criteria of Koch’s postulate?
a. Isolation
b. Pure culture
c. Reinfection
d. Recovery
What does Koch’s postulate prove?
A specific organism is the cause of a given disease.
Who first grew bacteria in pure culture?
J. Lister
Who discovered the cause of gonorrhea?
Neisser
Who discovered the cause of Tuberculosis?
R. Koch
Who discovered the cause of Diphtheria?
T. Klebs
Who discovered the cause of Tetanus?
A. Nicolaier
Who discovered the cause of Cholera?
R. Koch
Who discovered the cause of Typhoid Fever?
G. Gaffky
Who discovered the cause of The Black Plague?
A. Yersin
Who discovered the cause of Dysentery?
K. Shiga
Who isolated the tobacco mosaic virus?
Ivanowski isolated the tobacco mosaic virus in 1892
Who isolated yellow fever and developed the vaccine for it?
In 1900, Walter Reed isolated the yellow fever virus, and subsequently produced the vaccine.
What did Lister first use as an antiseptic technique for wounds?
carbolic acid (phenol).
What was first used for immunological protection?
Snake Venom
Who is credited with the first semiscientific vaccine against small pox?
Jenner 1790
What does variolization mean?
the obsolete process of inoculating a susceptible person with material taken from a vesicle of a person who has smallpox
Who developed the cellular theory of immunity? Is that T-cells or B-cells?
1880, Metchnikoff
T-Cells
Who developed the humoral theory of immunity? Is that T-cells or B-cells?
Bordet, in 1885
B-Cells
What is an antimetabolite?
any substance that interferes with growth of an organism by competing with or substituting for an essential nutrient in an enzymatic process.
What was our first chemotherapeutic agent?
Arsenic
Who developed penicillin? What bacteria was he working with at the time?
Fleming
Staphylococcus aureus.
Who revolutionized the nursing practice by introducing sanitary practices that helped control the spread of infectious diseases?
Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)
Who first isolated DNA?
Avery, Macleod & McCarty 1940
Who did work with viral nucleic acid?
Hershey and Chase
Who elucidated the structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick
Who developed the Cell Theory?
Schleiden and Schwann
What is the Cell Theory?
all living things are made of cells, and cells are the smallest unit of life.
Do eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells have a true nucleus bounded by a membrane containing pores?
Eukaryotic
What is found within the nucleus?
DNA, RNA, Proteins
Are centrioles found in plant or animal cells?
Animal
What do chloroplasts contain?
Chlorophyll
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy ® C6H12O6 + 6O2
What enzyme do we lack which prevents us from digesting cellulose?
cellulase
What are ribosomes composed of? What are they the site of?
Ribosomes are composed of RNA and protein and are the site of protein synthesis.
What are golgi bodies and what is their function?
flat membranous sacs that package and assemble proteins produced by the ribosomes.
What are lysosomes filled with? What do these hydrolytic enzymes do?
Lysozymes
They maintain the cell's integrity. They digest foreign substances that enter the cell such as bacteria, fungi, etc.
What is the mitochondria responsible for?
to provide energy for the ongoing activities of the cell.
What is the function of vacuoles?
To store food and waste products and hold water.
What is the function of the cytoskeleton? What is it made up of?
Maintains shape, strengthens the cell membrane, and allows for internal and external amoeboid movements.
Made up of microtubules composed of the protein tubulin and Microfilaments and Intermediate filaments are made of the protein actin.
What do most motile cells move by?
flagella or cilia.
What is a major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Size, Prokaryotes .3-10 microns
Eukaryotes 10-25 microns
What is the average size of bacteria? However, they range in size from____?
1-3 Microns
.3-10 microns
What are the three common shapes of bacteria?
cocci, rods and spirals
The cell walls of bacteria contain the polysaccharides NAG and NAM and are linked by peptide complexes. This is known as the _______ layer.
peptidoglycan layer.
Gram positive bacteria stain what color? Gram negative?
Purple, Red
Do G+ or G- bacteria have more teichoic acid? Which has a thinner peptidoglycan layer?
G+ has more teichoic acid and G- has a thinner peptidoglycan layer.
What are the additional layers found on G- bacteria?
amino acid lipoprotein (phospholipid) and a
lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
What is LPS? What does it contain?
antigenic lipid complex, Lipid A.
What are three Surface associated structures found on bacteria?
capsules, pili, and flagella
What is the function of capsules?
primarily for food and protection
________ are for locomotion. They are made of the protein _______ and are antigenic.
Flagella
flagellin
What are the two functions of pili?
function for sex transfer of DNA (via plasmids) and attachment (which can be associated with virulence).
The genetic material of bacteria is a circular DNA and known as a _____.
nucleoid
What are plasmids? Why are they scary?
Extrachromosomal DNA. These are separate from the DNA genome.
it is so easy to manipulate these & essentially create a "super bug"
What are the four flagellar arrangements? Describe them.
* monotrichous-only one
* lophotrichous-many on one end
* peritrichous-all around
* amphitrichous-on both ends
What are endospores?
highly resistive, refractile, thick-walled oval bodies
What two genus have bacteria with endospores?
Bacillus and Clostridium
What unique chemical does
the endospore wall contain?
dipicolinic acid
Who is credited with the binomial system?
Carolus Linnaeus
What does King Phillip Came Over From the Geat Spain stand for?
*Kingdom
*Phylum
*Class
*Order
*Family (Tribe, bacteria only)
*Genus
*Species
Whittaker divides living things into 5 kingdoms according to __________.
Mode of nutrition
Bacteria and Cyanobacteria are in what Kingdom? What is their characteristics?
MONERA
single celled, autotrophic, heterotrophic, the cell body is prokaryotic, i.e.: has no true nucleus or other membrane-bound internal compartments.
Phylum Sarcodina:
amoeboid protozoans
Phylum Pyrrophyta:
dinoflagellates
Phylum Myxomycota:
slime molds
Phylum Rhodophyta:
red algae
Phylum Sporozoa:
parasitic protozoans
What are the four classes and representative genera of the medically important Protista?
1. Class Mastigophora (flagellates) e.g.: Trichomonas, Giardia
2. Class Sarcodina (pseudopods/amoeba) e.g.: Entamoeba
3. Class Sporozoa (no motility) e.g.: malarial species (Plasmodium)
4. Class Ciliophora (ciliates) e.g.: Paramecium, Balantidium
True or False:
Protista are multicellular
Fasle
True or False:
Protista are autotrophic and heterotrophic
True
True or False:
Protista only reproduce asexually.
False
How are Protista classified?
according to motility.
Are Fungi single celled or multicellular?
single celled are yeasts and multi celled are molds. Most Fungi are multicellular organisms.
How do fungi feed?
By absorption of pre-digested products
Are fungi photosynthetic?
No
How are fungi classified?
They are classified according to sexual spores.
What are the reproductive spores of each class of fungi respectively?
Zygomycetes?
zygospore i.e. rhizopus, mucor
What are the reproductive spores of each class of fungi respectively?
Ascomycetes?
ascospore i.e. saccharomycetes, penicillium
What are the reproductive spores of each class of fungi respectively?
Basidiomycetes?
basidiospore i.e. mushrooms, puff balls, etc.
What are the reproductive spores of each class of fungi respectively?
Deuteromycetes?
reproductive spores not yet found. More than 10,000 species i.e. dermatophytes
What is the reproductive spore of rhizopus and mucor?
zygospore
What is the reproductive spore of saccharomycetes and penicillium?
ascospore
What is the reproductive spore of mushrooms and puffballs?
basidiospore
What is the vascular tissue of the Kingdom Plantae?
xylem and phloem
Are things from the Kingdom Plantae single celled or multicellular?
multicellular eukaryotes
Are things from the Kingdom Plantae autotrophs, photosynthetic, or heterotrophs?
Motile or non-motile?
autotrophs, photosynthetic, non-motile
Are things from the Kingdom Plantae sexual or asexual?
sexual and asexual, with complicated life cycles
Division Bryophyta:
mosses and liverworts
Division Psilophyta:
whisk ferns
Division Lycophyta:
club mosses
Division Anthophyta:
flowering plants
Division Pterophyta:
ferns
What phylum is a jellyfish part of?
Phylum Cnidaria
(jellyfish, hydra)
What phylum is a snail part of?
Phylum Mollusca
(snails, clams)
What phylum is a amphibian part of?
Phylum Chordata
(fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals)
What phylum is a sea star part of?
Phylum Echinodermata (sea stars)
What phylum is a lobster part of?
Phylum Arthropoda (insects, lobsters)
What phylum is are flatworms part of?
Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
What phylum is are round worms part of?
Phylum Nematodes (roundworms)
Carbohydrates are molecules made up of?
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Name an essential carbohydrate.
None, we make them all.
How many calories are in a gram of carbohydrate? How many in a gram of protein? In a gram of fat?
In a molecule of ATP?
4 carb
4 protein
9 fat
7.4 ATP
What three categories are carbs divided into?
monosaccharides
disaccharides
polysaccharides
What are the monosaccharides?
Monosaccharides - glucose, fructose, galactose.

They all have the same empirical formula: C6H12O6 (just in slilghtly different configurations). Isomers
What are the disaccharides?
sucrose, lactose, maltose
What are the polysaccharides?
starch, glycogen, cellulose
What is Lactose made of?
one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose and does not ferment.
What is Sucrose made of?
one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose.
What is Maltose made of?
two molecules of glucose.
What is the glucose storage molecule of animals?
Glycogen
What kind of fatty acids are associated with heart disease?
Saturated Free Fatty Acids (no unhydrogenated bonds)
Do saturated or unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds?
unsaturated
What are the three essential fatty acids?
1.Linoleic acid (18 carbons, 2 double bonds)
2.Linolenic acid (18 carbons, 3 double bonds)
3.Arachidonic acid (20 carbons, 4 bonds)
What are triglycerides composed of?
glycerol and 3 free fatty acids
What are proteins composed of?
composed of molecules known as amino acids linked with peptide bonds.
What are amino acids composed of?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
How many amino acids are there?
How many are essential?
20 Amino Acids
8 essential
What are the essential amino acids?
# Lysine
# Threonine
# Methionine
# Valine
# Phenylalenine
# Leucine
# Isoleucine
# Tryptohpan
What is an enzyme?
Enzymes are proteins. They are organic catalysts.
What is the non-protein portion of an enzyme? Protein portion?
coenzyme is non-protein portion
apenzyme is protein portion
Coezyme + Apoenzyme = ___________
holoenzyme
The rate of reaction catalyzed by ezymes depends on what four factors?
The concentration of the enzyme
the concentration of the substrate
The temperature pf Rx
The Ph of the Rx
Where do extracellular enzymes function? Intracellular enzymes?
outside the cell
Inside the cell
what type of enzyme is Hydrolase?
Hydrolytic or digestive
what type of enzyme is Oxidase?
Oxidizes its substrate (adds oxygen or removes hydrogen)
what type of enzyme is Reductase?
Reduces its substrate (adds hydrogen)
what type of enzyme is Dehydrogenase?
Removes hydrogen
what type of enzyme is Decarboxylase?
Removes carbon dioxide
what type of enzyme is Carboxylase?
Adds carbon dioxide
Does anabolism or catabolism released energy?
Catabolism
Tell whether each is a form of anabolism or catabolism:
photosynthesis?
Hydrolysis?
Fermentation?
Protein synthesis?
Respiration? Chemosynthesis?
photosynthesis-anabolism
Hydrolysis-catabolism
Fermentation-catabolism
Protein synthesis-anabolism
Respiration-catabolism Chemosynthesis-anabolism
what type of enzyme is Nuclease?
Hydrolyzes nucleic acids
what type of enzyme is Protease?
Hydrolyzes proteins
what type of enzyme is Lipase?
Hydrolyzes lipids
what type of enzyme is Sucrase (invertase)?
Digests sucrose
what type of enzyme is Permease?
Transports molecules across membranes
what type of enzyme is Transferase?
Transfers small groups from one molecule to another
What is the difference between an exergonic reaction and an endergonic reaction?
energy yielding
energy requiring
What is ATP and what does ATP stand for?
the basic unit of energy in an organism
adenosine triphosphate
Do you gain or lose electrons in oxidation? Do you gain or lose electrons in reduction?
oxidation-lose
reduction-gain
n the equation:
AH2 + B -----> A + BH2
Is A oxidized or reduced?
Is B oxidized or reduced?
A is oxidized
B is reduced
In aerobic respiration, what is the final electron acceptor?
Oxygen
Write out the equation for aerobic respiration.
C6H1206 (glucose) + 6 O2 = 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36/38 ATPs
What is fermentation?
Fermentation does not require oxygen.
Like gylcolysis except Glucose is oxidized to pyruvic acid, and then to lactic acid or alcohol if in yeast.
what is the equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy ® C6H12O6 + 6O2
The molecular structure of nucleic acids are divided into what three parts?
Nitrogenous bases
Sugars
Phosphoric acid
What is a nucleoside?
Nitrogenous base + Sugar = a nucleoside
Example: adenine + ribose = adenosine
What is a nucleotide?
Nitrogenous base + Sugar + Phosphoric acid = Nucleotide
Example:
Adenine + Ribose + Phosphoric Acid = adenylic acid, or adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
Adenine + ribose + 2 phosphoric acids = adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
Adenine + ribose + 3 phosphoric acids = adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
These molecules are used to synthesize DNA and RNA
What are the two nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
What are the nitrogenous bases of DNA?
Purines: adenine, guanine
Pyrimidines:cytosine, thymine
What are the nitrogenous bases of RNA?
Pyrimidines: cytosine, thymine and uracil
Purines:adenine,
Which binds base binds with which?
in DNA
A<->T
G<->C

in RNA
A<->U
G<->C
What is the role of RNAs in protein synthesis?
to transcribe and translate proteins from the genetic information of DNA.
What are the three types of RNA? What do each do?
Messenger RNA (mRNA)-holds the genetic code transcribed from DNA in the nucleus and takes the message to ribosomes.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)-codes amino acids.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-holds the anticode.
How many codons are there in the genetic code?
63 codons
What is the start code?
?
What are the 13 steps in protein synthesis?
1. DNA codes mRNA

2. mRNA goes to ribosome

3. tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosome

4. Polypeptide chain grows at the ribosome
?
How do bacteria reproduce/divide?
Bacteria reproduce asexually.

Most of them reproduce by binary fission where one cell divides into two equal cells.
What does generation time mean?
The process of bacterial reproduction is known as generation time.
What are the four stages of bacterial growth.
What is happening at each stage? Draw and label the growth curve.
1. Lag phase:no increase in the number of viable cells. The cells increase in size, imbibe water, and synthesize enzymes as they become adjusted to the medium.
2. Logarithmic phase:The growth rate is most rapid, and the length of generation time is at its minimum. The growth rate is constant.
3. Stationary phase: The food supply has fallen to a limiting concentration and the waste products have reached an inhibiting concentration. The growth rate is zero. One cell dies for each that is reproduced. This is the maximum crop population. Under optimum conditions, this occurs in 18 hours.
4. Death phase: The number of viable cells decreases as the number of deaths surpasses the number of new cells produced. The number of viable cells decreases at a logarithmic rate. The length of the death phase varies with the species. Cells can be maintained indefinitely in a logarithmic phase by continuously adding nutrients and removing toxic metabolic products.
Is a virus required in transformation or transduction? In which is there free DNA?
transduction
free DNA is in transformation
In microbial genetics, when is a pilus bridge involved?
In conjugation, "male" and "female" bacterial cells make physical contact.
A conjugation tube (sex pilus) forms between them, and some DNA passes from male (donor) to female (recipient) cells.
125. Write out the equations for:

a.) Oxidase

b.) Kinase

c.) Dehydrogenase
???