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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
archival measures
are records or documents that already exist
case study
an in-depth analysis of an individual, group, or event
confounding of variables
two variables are intertwined in such a way that we cannot determine which one has influenced a depedent variable
control group
is not exposed to the treatment or receives a zero-level of the independent variable
correlation coefficient
a statistic that indicates the direction and strength of the relation between two variables
correlational research
has three steps

1: Measure one variable X
2: Measure a second variable Y
3: Statistically determines whether X and Y are related
demand characteristics
cues that participants pick up about the hypothesis of a study or about how they are supposed to behave
dependent variable
the factor that is measured by the experimenter and may be influenced by the independent variable
descriptive research
seeks to identify how humans and other animals behave, particularly in natural settings
double-blind procedure
both the participant and experimenter are kept blind as to which experimental condition the participant is in
has three parts
1: manipulates one or more variables
2. measures whether this manipulation influences other variables
3. attempts to control extraneous factors that might influence the outcome of the experiment
experimental group
the group that receives a treatment or an "active" level of the independent variable
experimenter expectancy effects
refers to the subtle and unintentional ways researchers influence their participants to respond in a manner that is consistent with the researcher's hypothesis
external validity
the degree to which the results of a study can be generalized to other people, settings, and conditions
a specific prediction about some phenomenon
independent variable
refers to the factor that is manipulated by the experimenter
informed consent
when people agree to participate in research
internal validity
represents the degree to which an experiment supports clear causal conclusions
statistical procedure for combining the results of different studies that examine the same topic
naturalistic observation
the researcher observes behavior as it occurs in a natural setting
negative correlation
occurs when higher scores on one variable are associated with lower scores on a second variable
operational definition
defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it
a substance that has no pharmacological effect
placebo effect
people receiving a treatment show a change in behavior because of their expectations, not because the treatment itself had any specific benefit
consists of all the individuals that we are interested in drawing a conclusion
positive correlation
meant that higher scores on one variable are associated with higher scores on a second variable
random assignment
a procedure in which each participant has an equal likelihood of being assigned to any one group within an experiment
random sampling
every member of the population has an equal probabiligy of being chosen to participate in the survey
is the process of repeating a study to determine whether the original findings can be duplicated
representative sample
reflects the important characteristics of the population
is a subset of individuals drawn from the larger population
correlation between two variables can be depicted on a graph
survey research
information about a topic is obtained by administering questionnaires or interviews to many people
a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one another
any characteristic or factor that can vary