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49 Cards in this Set

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Bipolar Disorder
Mood swings between states of extreme elation and depression (mania)
States or Elation
Manic Episodes
Few weeks to several months
Poor Judgement
Manic Episodes
Show poor judgement
Flights of ideas
Multiple tasks
Decreased need for sleep
No regard for consequences
Cycling
Rate at which on passes from elation to depression or vise versa
Rapid Cycling
2+ cycles of mania and depressionin 1 year
Withouth intervening normal periods
Uncommon
More in women
Types of Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar I disorder

Bipolar II disorder
Bipolar I Disorder
At least 1 full manic episode
.4% - 1.6% of population
Equal in men and women
Onset
Bipolar II Disorder
Milder form of mania (hypomania)
Frequent depression
.5% of population
More common in women
Cyclothymic Disorder
Mood swings from elation to depression
Lasting 2 years
Begins in teens
.4-1% of population
Men and women equal
Cyclothymic Disorder
Hypomanic episodes
Depression
Causes of Mood Disorders
Cognitive (for Depression)

Biological
Treatment Approaches to depression
Behavioral/Cognitive
Lewinsohn's coping with depression course

Biological - antidepressents
Treatment Approaches to Bipolar
Lithium - stablizing moods
Must be carefully monitored due to potential effects
Anticonvulsant drugs
No antidepressants!!!!!!!
Personality Disorders
Personality traits:
Inflexible
Maladaptive
Across Situations - must be in all
Anti-Social Personality Disorder
Lie, cheat, steal, manipulate
As adults - not good holding down responsibility, no finical status
As teens - tons of drinking
Little or no remorse
6% of men 1% of women
starts in childhood
Borderline Personality Disorders
10 million Americans
Chronic instability of
Emotions
Self-image
Relations
Borderline Personality Disorder
Uncontrooable moods
OUtburst
Abandonment
Idealizing to hostility
Self-mutilation and Damaging impulses
Dissociative Disorders
A disorder characterized by diruption or dissociation of:
Identity
Memory
Consciousness
Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

Dissociative amnesia

Dissociative Fugue
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Also know as Multiple personality disorder
Dissociative disorder in which a person had two or more distinct personalitlites called alters
Host may or may not be aware of alters
DID continued
Alters can have:
Name
History
Age
Gender
Allergiews
Sexual orientation
Brain functions
DID facts
Women are majority of cases
Although, number of men are increasing
Number of reported cases is increaseing too
DID Prevalence Increasing
Handful from 1920-1970
Now in the thousands
Due to:
May be more common
Highly suggestible
Controversy
Some feel not a disorder
Spanos agrues it is role playing
Found that it spreads on inpatient units
Those diagnosed were highly imaginative as children
Dissociative Amnesia
A dissociative disorder in which a person experiences memory loss without any identifable organic cause
Is reversible
Memory comes back suddenly
Dissociative Fugue
Dissociatvie disorder in which one flees from one's life situation, travels to a new location, assumes a new identity and has amnesia for personal material
Amnesia vs. Fugue
Amnesia - wander around, very confused

Fugue - take steps for new idenity
Types of Fugue
Short lived
Long lived
Short Lived
more common, goes away for hours or days, stays close to home
Long Lived
Travel faraway and make new idenitity
Pervalence of Fugue
Rare
2 out of 1000 will experience it
Causes of Dissociative Disorders
Cognitive and Learning View- by not thinking about it, is a negative reinforcement
Biological - inbalance in metabolic activity
Treatment Approaches to Dissociative Disorders
Amnesia and Fugue - NO TREATMENT
DID - convers all personalities into one
Schizophrenia
Severely distorted:
beliefs
Perceptions
Thought Processes
Symptoms
Positive
Negative
Positive symptoms
Excess in normal functioning
They show something besides what they have
This addes on to normal function
Not a good thing
Positive symptoms include
Delusions
Hallucinatinos
Disorganized thoughts and behaviors
Delusions
Falsely held belief
Persists in spite of contradictory evidence
Delusions of Reference
Other people are constantly talking about them
Delusions of Grandeur
extremely important, powerful, or wealthy
Delusions fo Persecution
Others plotting against or trying to harm
Hallucinations
False or distorted perceptions
Vivdly real
Any of senses
Persistent
Hallucinations continued
Auditory - hear things
Visual - see things that aren't really there
Tactile - feeling things not being done now
Smell/taste - taste and smell something not there
Negative Symptoms
Defects or deficits in normal functioning
Negative Symptoms
Affective flattening
Emotionally flat
No emotions
Types of Schizophrenia
Paranoid
Catatonic
Disorganized
Undifferentiated
Explaining Schizophrenia
Biological Factors
Dopamine Hypothesis
Biological Factors
Slow communication between left and right hemisphere
Reduced gray in frontal lobe
Dopamine Hypothesis
Have excess of dopamine in the system
Explaining Schizophrenia
Abnormal Brain structures - enlarged ventricles
Viral infection - during birth or shortly afer birth
Head injury