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18 Cards in this Set

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what happens during step 2: hydroethyl group -->
acteyl coA + H+

-what attaches to E2? to form ?
-what does CoA cleave off?
end up with ? to where?
-alpha lipoic acid attaches to E2 forming lipoamide=acetolipoamide
-CoA cleaves off an acetate group
-get Acetyl CoA-will go to matrix of mitochondria for TCA cycle
hydroxyethyl group is then attached to the lipoamide=acetolipoamide because lipoamide is formed by
alpha lipoic acid attached to E2
what vitamins are required for hydroxyethyl group to acetyl coA + H+?
vitamin alpha lipoic acid=active form

vitamin pantothenic acid/active form=coenzyme
step 3: H+--> ? with E3
H+ --> NADH

-FAD+ -->FADH-->
NAD+ -->NADH=3ATP

-after cleaving off the last molecules, you have a molecule with 2 protons that will be taken off by E3
what happens to FAD?
it becomes reduced and then oxidized again when reducing NAD ...FADH
vitamins required for
H+ to NADH

hint: R.N.
Niacin and Riboflavin
final products in PDH

hint: C.A.N
2 CO2, 2 NADH,
2 ACETYL CoA (x2/glucose because we assume 2 pyruvates)
regulation of PDH

NADH:NAD+
-if ratio is high, it means?
-if ratio is low?
-there is a lot of energy; slows down PDH (NADH inhibits PDH)
-if low, PDH activity is increased because we need more energy (NAD+ stimulates PDH)
NDH inhibits/stimulates PDH?
inhibits PDH
PDH cycle is active when phosphorylated/or not phosphorylated?
not phosphorylated. NAD+ inhibits protein kinases that phosphorylate the PDH complex
Ca++/ATP

Ca++ stimulates or inhibits?
ATP stimulates/inhibits?
1. Phosphatases which dephosphorylate the PDH are activated by Ca++ so Ca++ is a stimulator
-ATP inhibits (inverse relationship with Ca++)
what inhibits PDH COMPLEX?
High Acetyl CoA
what stimulates PDH Complex?
-Cortisol
-Insulin in adipose tissue
-Catecholamines in cardiac tissue
-pyruvate
-dopamine
-norepinenphrine
-epinephrine
Kidney:
Vit. D is necessary for ?

if Ca++ is down, phosphate in blood goes ___ to ___ Ca++ in blood stream
Ca++ absorption
-low phosphate increases Vit. D in kidney
-if Ca++ goes down, phosphate in blood goes down to increase Ca++ in bloodstream
Per one mole of glucose, u get

1. how many CO2
2. how many NADH (? ATP)
1. 2 CO2
2. 2 NADH (6 ATP)
Per one PDH complex

1. how many CO2
2. how many 1 NADH
1. 1 CO2
2. 1 NADH

FORMED 0 FAD B/C ITS ONLY AN INTERMEDIATE
MITOCHONDRIA
-toxicity means build up of?
are very susceptible to toxins. if there's a toxicity going on,
1. pyruvate will build up in blood.
2. lactic acid
3. pyruvate
how do u treat toxicity build up?
1.
2.
3.
4.

to increase/decrease likelihood of collisions?
give orthomolecular levels of
-alpha lipoic acid
-pantothenic acid
-riboflavin
-niacin
b/c there must be prob with attachment so increase the likelihood of collisions (saturate the environment)