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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Structuralism--Who?
William Wundt--Germany
Introduced psychology as a science
Structuralism--Basic Premise
The whole is equal to the sum of its consituent parts
Functionalism--Who?
William James
Led the first distinctly American school in the early 20th century
Functionalism--Basic Premise
Psychology is the study of the mind as it functions in adapting to its environment
Gesalt--Who?
Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka
Against structuralism
Gesalt--Basic Premise
The whole is different than the sum of the constituent parts, it's about the molar aspects of behavior and experience
Psychoanalysis--Who?
Sigmund Freud--Austrian physician
Psychoanalysis--Basic Premise
Unconscious mental forces direct our everyday behavior...psychological maladjustment results from unresolved conflicts of which a person is unaware
Freud's stages
Oral Stage (0 to 2)
Anal Stage (2 to 5)
Phallic Stage (5 to 7)
Latency Stage (7 to 12)
Gender Stage (12 through adulthood)
Freud's categories
Superego--morality principle
Ego--reality principle
Id--pleasure principle
Behaviorism--Who?
John Watson
Led the revolt that produced the most influential school of psychology
Behaviorism--Basic Premise
Psychology should study only what can be observed and measured objectively
Psychology is the study of human behavior
Structuralism--more
Analyze onscious processes into their basic elements, discover how these elements became connected, specify the laws governing the connection
Functionalism--focus
How the organism adapted to their environment
Behaviorism--more
Blank slate theory
Theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
A theory should ...
be parsimonious (concise)
organize and link observedfacts
offer hypotheses
be replicable
Variance
How spread out scores are from the mean

(sum for deviations) ^2/n
Standard deviation
How rare the score is in relation to the mean

square root of the variance
Research Methods
Descriptive
Correlational
Experimental
Descriptive
to observe and record behavior
case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observations
nothing is manipulated
Correlational
to detect naturally occurring relationships, to assess how well one variable predicts another
gives you predictive power but no causation
nothing is manipulated
Experimental
to explore cause and effect
the independent variable is manipulated
Independent Variable
the experimental factor you manipulate; the treatment itself
Dependent Variable
the behavior measured, the factor that might be affected by changes in the independent variable
Experimental condition
the condition that exposes subjects to one version of the independent variable
Control condition
a condition identical to the experimental one, except the independent variable has a different value
Random assignment
assigning subjects to conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those in the different conditions
External Validity
the degree to which the conclusions in your study would hold for other persons in other places and at other times
Internal Validity
the approximate truth about inferences regarding cause and effect or causal relationships
Test retest validity
You can expect extreme similarities between the first test and the retest
Harry Harlow
infant monkey researcher
to prove that the wellbeing of the child depends on more than just food--contact comfort
Rene Spitz
worked with institutionalized children and discovered that attention and love kept the children alive
John Bowlby
stages of reaction to separation--proest, despair, detachment
Internal Working Model (IWM)
a template or mold where the infant learns to expect something from others
Secure Attachment
saw others as trustworthy and loving, thought they were worthy of love
68% of people
infant drives the attachment
Anxious/Ambivalent
saw others as unpredictable, saw self as not worthy, but struggled to be worthy
parents drive the attachment--inconsistent parenting
Avoidant
saw others as unavailable, unloving, unresponsive
saw self as not needing anyone, independent
defensive self-reliance
Mary Ainsworth
Strange Situation (explain)

enter, stranger, mother leaves, mother returns stranger leaves, alone, stranger, mother
Jerome Kagan
temperament theorist (before attachment)
Temperament styles
Relaxed/easy going
Reactive/difficult
Opponent Process Theory
the system seeks homeostasis
Medial forebrain bundle
pleasure/reward segment of our brain
Nucleus accumbens
sends signals from the brain distributing feelings
Neurons
the way in which we reveive messages, provide information, etc.
Myelin sheath
grows as we grow...speeds the rate of transmission from the dendrites to the axon
Dendrites
receive an electrical impules and send it through the axon
Axon
receive the electrical impulse from the dendrite
Synaptic gap
Gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another--releases chemials
Monoamine oxidase
clears up the excess neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap
Alexander Klumsin
rat cocaine sugar water experiment