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57 Cards in this Set

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What is protein/polypeptide?
A string of amino acids connected by peptide bonds.
What are the ten essential amino acids?
Threonine, lysine, methionine, valine, phenylalanine, leucine, tryptophan, isoleucine, histadine, arginine.
What are the ten non-essential amino acids?
Glycine, alanine, serine, cysteine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamine, tyrosine, proline
What is an essential amino acid?
An amino acid that cannot be produced by the body.
What is the first step in amino acid digestion and where does it take place?
Deamination in the liver.
What happens to the amine portion of an amino acid once it's removed.
It's converted to urea.
What happens to the deaminated portion of an amino acid?
If energy is needed, it is further processed so it can enter the Krebs cycle. If energy is not need it may be converted to glucose.
Do amino acids have to be metabolized after they are broken down from a protein or peptide?
No, they can be reused to make new proteins or polypeptides.
What can be used to synthesize non-essential amino acids?
Glucose and nitrogen containing groups.
What is the function of the liver in terms of carbohydrates?
1. Stores glycogen
2. Converts galactose and fructose to glucose
3. Gluconeogenesis
4. Forms intermediate compounds in carbohydrate metabolism (oxaloacetic acid)
What is the function of the liver in terms of fat?
1. Fast beta oxidation
2. Synthesizes lipoproteins
3. Synthesizes cholesterol and phospholipids
4. Converts carbs and proteins to fat
What is the function of the liver in terms of proteins?
1. Deamination of amino acids.
2. Formation of urea
3. Synthesis of almost all plasma proteins
4. Synthesis of non-essential amino acids
Where are vitamins A, D, B12 stored?
In the liver.
Where is iron stored and in what form?
Ferritin in the liver.
How does insulin affect carbohydrate metabolism?
1. Increases glucose import into tissues
2. Promotes glycogen synthesis
3. Indirectly inhibits gluconeogenesis by stopping breakdown of proteins into amino acids
How does insulin affect lipid metabolism?
1. Promotes synthesis and storage of fat
2. Inhibits breakdown of fat
How does insulin affect protein metabolism?
1. Increases amino acid transport into tissues
2. Promotes protein synthesis
3. Promotes growth by promoting protein synthesis
What are the actions of glucagon in the body?
1. Promotes glycogen breakdown
2. Stimulates gluconeogenesis
3. Does NOT affect glucose utilization like insulin
What is the main action of thyroid hormone in terms of metabolism?
Increases all metabolic rates.
What is the action of cortisol in regards to metabolism?
Allows increased formation of amino acids and fatty acids to be used as fuel while decreasing glucose use.
What is the function of the liver in terms of fat?
1. Fast beta oxidation
2. Synthesizes lipoproteins
3. Synthesizes cholesterol and phospholipids
4. Converts carbs and proteins to fat
What is the function of the liver in terms of proteins?
1. Deamination of amino acids.
2. Formation of urea
3. Synthesis of almost all plasma proteins
4. Synthesis of non-essential amino acids
Where are vitamins A, D, B12 stored?
In the liver.
Where is iron stored and in what form?
Ferritin in the liver.
How does insulin affect carbohydrate metabolism?
1. Increases glucose import into tissues
2. Promotes glycogen synthesis
3. Indirectly inhibits gluconeogenesis by stopping breakdown of proteins into amino acids
How does insulin affect lipid metabolism?
1. Promotes synthesis and storage of fat
2. Inhibits breakdown of fat
How does insulin affect protein metabolism?
1. Increases amino acid transport into tissues
2. Promotes protein synthesis
3. Promotes growth by promoting protein synthesis
What are the actions of glucagon in the body?
1. Promotes glycogen breakdown
2. Stimulates gluconeogenesis
3. Does NOT affect glucose utilization like insulin
What is the main action of thyroid hormone in terms of metabolism?
Increases all metabolic rates.
What is the action of cortisol in regards to metabolism?
1. Allows gluconeogenesis by facilitating amino acids conversion into glucose which is then stored in liver as glycogen
2. Increases fatty acid supply by inhibiting protein synthesis
3. Spares glucose use via fatty acid release which is then used as energy
Does epinephrine promote glycogen synthesis in the liver?
No. It increases glucose release from glycogen.
What are the three essential fatty acids and why are they important?
Linolenic, linoleic, and arachidonic are precursors of the eicosanoids.
What source of energy is used when caloric intake is inadequate?
Fats first and proteins second.
What is nitrogen balance?
When the amount of nitrogen excreted (formed by turnover of proteins) is equal to the amount of nitrogen ingested.
What is the effect if the body is missing an essential amino acid?
When the transcription reaches that particular sequence, protein synthesis stops and the protein remains unfinished.
What are grade I and grade II proteins?
Grade I proteins are from animals and grade II proteins are from plants. These vary in their amounts of amino acids.
What is kwashiorkor?
A syndrome caused by lack of tryptophan in the diet.
What condition is associated with iron deficiency?
Anemia
What condition is associated with cobalt deficiency?
Pernicious anemia
What condition is associated with iodine deficiency?
Goiter
What syndrome is associated with zinc deficiency?
Skin ulcers and depressed immune system.
What syndrome is associated with copper deficiency?
Anemia, ossification changes.
What syndrome is associated with chromium deficiency?
Insulin resistance.
What syndrome is associated with fluorine deficiency?
Dental caries.
What is effect of hypervitaminosis A?
Very symptomatic and includes patchy hair loss, scaly dermatitis, bone pain, etc.
What is hypervitaminosis D?
Can result in hypercalcemia which presents as weakness, fatigue, nausea, mental status change, etc.
What are short term regulators of metabolic regulation?
Body temperature, glucose levels, fatty acids, amino acids, hormones.
What are long-term regulators of metabolic regulation?
Thought to be controlled in part of the hypothalamus to maintain adequate fat stores for survival.
What hormone communicates with hypothalamus, conveying adipose information?
Leptin. The amount in blood is proportional to amount of fat in body.
What is affect of high levels, low levels of leptin.
High levels suppress appetite and low levels stimulate appetite.
What is a secondary effect of low levels of leptin unrelated to metabolism?
Can inhibit puberty.
What is cachexia?
Pathological state associated with massive weight loss that has many causes but leads to huge loss in both adipose and protein mass.
What can be found in the urine of anorexic patients in later stages?
Nitrogen, from protein degradation.
What is ghrelin?
A hormone from the stomach that increases appetite, stimulates growth hormone release, and increases fat stores.
What are the four phases of starvation?
1. Immediate response-decrease in glucose leads to glycogen depletion in liver
2. Profligate period-Protein breakdown and negative nitrogen balance
3. Adapted response-protein degradation reduced and triglycerides used
4. Terminal phase-Massive protein degradation
Where is cortisol released?
A glucocorticoid (gluco-affects sugar) released from the zone fasciculata (middle layer of adrenal cortex).
What are the effects of cortisol?
1. Gluconeogenesis is used to build up glycogen supply by converting amino acids into glucose
2. Increases rate of protein breakdown to increase amino acid supply
3. Increase fatty acid supply to spare glucose use
4. Essential in survival to spare glucose (brain utilizes glucose)
5. Suppresses inflammation and immune response