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36 Cards in this Set

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1 American fears of a standing army were reawakened in 1783 by
A) The Newburgh Conspiracy consisted of soldiers who threatened mutiny to receive a lump sum payment for Revolutionary War service.

B) Henry Knox founded the Society of Cincinnati for Continental officers which had a hereditary membership that appeared to be a step toward nobility in America.

C) The Pennsylvania Line of the Continental Army mutinied for immediate discharge & pay since they felt the war was over even though the treaty was yet unsigned.
2 The Articles of Confederation government's post-Revolutionary War military policy included
In 1784 they formed the 1st American Regiment of 700 militia enlisted for 1 year.
In 1785 Congress turned to three year recruits to protect the frontier but they failed to do so.
Daniel Shays' revolt in Massachusetts showed how powerless the government really was.
3 Constitutional doctrines regarding the military included
divided military power between the states and federal government
shared military power between Congress & the President
states guarantees for republican form of government & retain control of the militia
4 The U.S. Government actions under the Constitution included
Congress created the War Department & GW appointed Henry Knox the first Secretary of War.

The Uniform Militia Act of 1792 enrolled all able-bodied white men from 18 to 45 & the militia responsibility was given to states.

In Sept. 1789 Congress created the 1st American Regiment & artillery battalion.
5 Indian relations in the west included
In 1790 the Northwest Indians revolted & Hamar was ambushed along the Maumee River.

St. Clair was ambushed along the Wabash River

Congress created the Legion of the US.

Anthony Wayne used the Legion to defeat the Indians at Fallen Timbers & got the Treaty of Ft. Grenville in which the Indians gave up Ohio & part of Indiana.
6 The significance of the Whiskey Rebellion included
Western Pennsylvania frontiersmen opposed the US excise tax on whiskey.

Washington used militiamen to put down the rebellion.

It showed the new national government could "ensure domestic tranquility."
7 The Federalists' policy toward the US Navy included
Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 to construct 6 frigates for war against Algiers but only three were built.

Coastal commerce areas supported a US Navy but interior & agrarian states opposed it.

The Department of the Navy with Benjamin Stoddert as SECNAV was created in 1798 due problems with France.

The Quasi War with France saw the USN escort convoys in the West Indies, hunt privateers, & sometimes fight French warships.
8 The Federalist legacy of military policy included
a small professional army augmented by militia & volunteers during wartime

a system of arsenals, dockyards & coastal fortifications

a small USN showing the flag in peacetime to protect US shipping & plundering enemy shipping in wartime

a passive defense policy to preserve the country in crisis until its strength could be mobilized
9 Jefferson's military policy included
The militia was the first line of defense as Jefferson cut both the US Army & US Navy.

He created the USMA in 1802.

The War with Tripoli partially halted some naval retrenchment, although Congress preferred gunboats to a large fleet of large warships.

Jefferson preferred to use economic coercion to military power against Britain & France.
10 The US entered the War of 1812 due to all of the following
The Embargo hurt the US economy & caused agricultural depression for farmers.

Westerners wanted to expand into Canada & Florida.

The War Hawks pressed for war & the British impressed seamen.

Westerners felt the British were aiding the Indians who were attacking the American frontier.
11 US handicaps in the War of 1812 included
a late start with a small army & weak navy

a weak commander-in-chief- President Madison

factionalism in the government & army

conflicts between national & regional strategic concerns
12 The opposition to the War of 1812 included all of the following
was centered in New England

led to the Hartford Convention

ensured New England would not cooperate in prosecuting the war
13 The theaters of war in the War of 1812 included the following
The Northeast- Canadian border from Niagara to Lake Champlain

The Northwest- from Lake Erie to Lake Huron

The Southern- from New Orleans to Pensacola

The Eastern- including the eastern seaboard & the Atlantic Ocean
14 The Canadian Campaign in 1812 included
A small British defense force in Canada because of other worldwide commitments.

William Hull's invasion failed & he surrendered Detroit.

Stephen Van Renssalear's invasion failed when militiamen refused to cross into Canada & he was defeated at Queenstown Heights.

Henry Dearborn's invasion failed when militiamen refused to cross into Canada.
15 The action of the US Navy in the War of 1812 included
The Federalist frigates were the best in the world officered by young men experienced in fighting the Tripolian pirates.

The British could only commit a portion of their fleet to the war with the US.

There was single ship combat in which the USN did well.

By 1813 the RN established a blockade of American ports
16 The US policy in 1813 included the following
Oliver Hazard Perry defeated the RN on Lake Erie which pushed British land forces back.

Zebulon Pike raided York but Dearborn is defeated at Chrysler's Farm.

Jacob Brown successfully invaded Canada but the force retreated after he & Winfield Scott were wounded.
17 The British launched all of the following offensives in 1814
Prevost invaded the US from Montreal but retreated after the RN was defeated on Lake Champlain to cut his supply line.

Robert Ross captured Washington DC but failed to take Baltimore.

Andrew Jackson defeated the Indians in the Southwest in the Creek War.

Andrew Jackson won a major battle at New Orleans after the war was over & the peace treaty had already been signed.

was a status quo ante bellum treaty

was signed by the British because the war in Europe was temporarily over

failed to address any of the US concerns that led to war in 1812
1 Significant developments that impacted military policy during the 1820's & 1830's included
The Industrial Revolution provided technological advances.
There was a beginning of real military professionalism.
The armed forces aided the nation's territorial expansion & economic development.
2 Naval developments in postwar of 1812 America included
Congress voted to expand the US Navy to 9 ships of the line (74 guns) and 12 frigates that were to be built slowly over time.
Navy ships were divided into squadrons- the Med, Pacific, South Atlantic, East Indies, Home, & African.
A Board of Navy Commissioners was founded & then abolished in 1842.
The Board of Navy Commissioners was replaced by five Bureaus: Yards & Docks, Construction, Equipment & Repair, Medicine & Surgery, and Ordnance & Hydrography.
3 The US defense policy in the 1820's & 1830's included
The first line of defense was the US Navy.
The Regular Army manned a line of seacoast fortifications.
A well-organized militia was supposed to be provided.
A Commanding General was created in 1821 but he had a problem with autonomous bureau chiefs.
4 The Army used the Industrial Revolution's increased technology in all of the following ways
Technology provided increased firepower with percussion caps, cylindrical bullets, rifles, & breechloaders.
There was enhanced mobility by using steamboats & railroads.
Communications improved due to the use of the telegraph.
5 Naval technology changes due to the Industrial Revolution included
Steamships replaced sail power.
Wooden hulls were replaced (slowly) by steel hulls.`
6 The leading military theory in the 1820's & 1830's included
Prof. Dennis Hart Mahan at USMA adopted French ideas & taught them to most of the men who would become Civil War leaders.
Prussia established the Kriegs Academie& following Clausewitz who stressed strategy but Americans ignored this development.
The French created schools that emphasized engineering & de Jomini's "The Art of War" stressing decisive geographic points, speed, movement, & lines of supply & communication was studied by Americans
West Point followed the French system & Annapolis was started in 1845.
7 American military culture after the War of 1812 included
West Point impacted the army so that 76% of all Army officers in 1860 were USMA graduates.
A distinct military subculture emerged that saw officership as a lifelong commitment.
The staff system was expanded & developed formal regulations that brought some stability to military administration.
Volunteer militias became more important than common militias.
8 The US Army's role in the west included:
Soldiers explored the west including Lewis & Clark (1804-06), Stephen Long (1819-20), and John C. Fremont (1842)
The Army built & improved transportation networks of roads, canals, railroads, and improved rivers.
The Army began frontier communities.
The Army served as a law-enforcement agency to regulate trade with the Indians & protect the settlers.
9 The US Navy's role between 1838 and 1861 included
The Navy undertook explorations of the Amazon, Rio de la Plata, Arctic Sea, Pacific Ocean & charted the west coast of Africa.
The Navy opened trade with China (1844) & Japan (1854).
The Navy protected US property & citizens in Asia, the Caribbean & the Mediterranean.
10 The US Army-Indian relations in the 1830's included
The US Army was involved in Indian removal by organizing the traveling parties, protecting settlers & forcing the Indians to move.
The Army defeated the Creeks in 1836.
The Army defeated the Sac & Fox tribes in Illinois in 1832 in the Black Hawk War.
The Army fought the Seminoles in Florida & finally forced most of them into Indian Territory after COL Worth destroyed their crops.
11 President Polk's foreign policy problems included
Polk campaigned on a platform pledging 54 40' or fight in Oregon against the British.
President Polk compromise with the British along the 49th parallel in Oregon.
Polk wanted to acquire California, New Mexico & Texas.
Texas was annexed in 1845 which brought with it a border dispute with Mexico.
12 In the Southern Texas/ Northern Mexico campaign in the Mexican War the following transpired.
Zachary Taylor moved his army south of the Neuces River into disputed territory.
General Arista moved north of the Rio Grande & shed "American blood on American soil."
Arista's army was defeated at Palo Alto & Reseca de la Palma.
Taylor then crossed the Rio Grande into Mexico.
13 Those Americans who criticized the war with Mexico included
abolitionists who saw the war as a plot to expand slave territory
pacifists who argued the war violated Christian principles
Whig politicians who thought Polk launched the invasion for imperialism
Conscience Whigs who voted against military appropriations for war to expand slavery
14 President Polk's direction of the Mexican War included
He exercise tight control over all its aspects.
Polk disliked both Taylor & Scot,t who were Whigs with presidential ambitions.
Polk mobilized the volunteer militia & called for 50,000 volunteers for 12 months.
Parsimonious appropriations crippled procurement & transportation.
15 Taylor's campaign for Monterrey included
GEN Pedro Ampudia replaced Arista & had 7500 men & 42 cannons to hold Monterey.
Taylor had 6200 men & lacked siege guns.
Taylor used a double envelopment & fought his way into the city with many casualties.
Taylor & Ampudia agreed to an 8 week truce which made Polk furious.
16 The California & New Mexico campaign included
In California, Fremont & the Bear Flag revolt took place in the north, Sloat & Stockton of the Navy took SF & Monterey, and Kearny took southern California.
Stephen Kearny marched through Santa Fe & a revolt in New Mexico was crushed by Sterling Price
There was a very confused command system in California.
17 At the Battle of Buena Vista in 1847
Polk took most of Taylor's experienced troops & gave them to Scott for his invasion of Mexico.
Taylor had 4500 men, 90% of whom had never been in battle.
Santa Anna launched a strong assault on the US lines.
The volunteers rallied under COL Jefferson Davis & the US Army artillery blew away the Mexican attackers.
18 Winfield Scott's campaign in central Mexico included
Scott used 10,000 men to besiege & capture Mexico City.
Santa Anna tried to block the road at Cerro Gordo but Lee found a way around the Mexican left flank & the Mexicans retreated.
Scott assaulted Mexico City from the south at Contrearas & Churubusco.
Scott captured Mexico City after Molino del Rey & Chapultepac fell.
19 The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo included
The US paid Mexico $15,000,000 and assumed the damage claims of US citizens against Mexico ($3,250,000)
Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande River as the border.
Mexico ceded California & New Mexico (the Southwest)