Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
in what order does air pass through the body after nose and mouth?
pharynx, past the larynx through the trachea
what are the two vital functions that the respiratory system serve?
1.makes O2 constantly available
2.carries waste products such as CO2
what are two examples of accessory functions of the respiratory system?
vocalizing: air passes across larynx to make sound
straining/valsalva: used for defication, urination, childbirth
where does exchange of air take place?
between air of the lungs and the thin membranes of the alveoli and capillary: one cell thick
what are the muscles involved in respiration?
accessory muscles
what are the accessory muscles that are involved in respiration?
at what anatomical point in the airway does the "respiration" actually occur?
in the respiratory bronchioles (alveolar sacs, alveoli)
typically what rib marks the end of the lungs anteriorly?
typically what rib marks the end of the lungs posteriorly?
which lung is shorter?
Right lung: liver pushes up on it
which lung is more wide?
Right: because the heart impedes the left
which lobe of the right lung is the largest?
the RLL: it is separated from the others by the major fissure
how/when are fissures of the lungs seen?
if there is fluid within the pleural space or if the visceral pleura is thickened
at what level does the trachea begin?
at the cricoid cartilage...the level of the larynx (6th vertebra)
typically where does a peanut get lodged and cause a patient to choke?
right mainstem bronchi: shorter, wider, less acute angle
what main features make up the superior mediastinum?
brachiocephalic veins, the branches from the aortic arch, the trachea, the esophagus
what lies in the thin anterior mediastinum?
thymus gland
what lies in the middle mediastinum?
the heart
what lies in the posterior mediastinum?
it is continuous with the superior mediastinum, and contains the esophagus, primary bronchi and the thoracic aorta
what are the two layers of the pleura?
parietal pleura
visceral pleura
what is the "potential space" between the two layers of the pleura?
the pleural cavity
when a lung collapses (pneumothorax) or develops an infection, what condition can occur?
what is the major muscle of inspiration?
the diaphragm
what innervates the diaphragm?
phrenic nerve
the dead air space is known as?
residual volume RV
what are the 4 volumes of the physiology of the lungs?
Tidal volume TV
inspiratory reserve volume IRV
expiratory reserve volume ERV
residual volume RV
what are the four capacities of the lungs?
inspiratory capacity IC
functional residual cap FRC
vital capacity VC
Total lung capacity TLC
the volume of air inspired or expired with each normal breath. passive. ~500mL air exchange
tidal volume TV
the extra volume of air that can be inspired over and above the normal tidal volume. ~3000mL
inspiratory reserve volume = IRV
the extra amount of air that can be expired by forceful expiration at the end of normal TV. ~ 1100mL
expiratory reserve volume ERV
the volume of air remaining in the lungs after the most forceful expiration. you can never get this air out. ~1200mL
residual volume RV the "dead air space"
what is the maximum volume to which the lungs can be expanded with the greatest possible inspiratory effort. ~5800mL
total lung capacity
what space is considered to be the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after first filling the lungs to maximum extent and then expiring to the maximum?
vital capacity
what is the most sensitive indicator of a diseased state?
FEV1 : forced expiratory volume in one second
what is the barometric pressure?
760mm Hg= 101.3 kPa
decreases with altitude
is the intrapleural pressure higher or lower than atmospheric ?
lower: 756 mm Hg
what is an example of a disease state that the lungs have a lower compliance and therefore a higher transmural pressure exists and more work is required to breathe?
pulmonary fibrosis
what is an example of a disease state in which there is higher compliance of the lungs, but it is often more difficult to expire due to loss of recoil?
what lines the alveoli that prevents lung collapse?
if an infant is born before 37 weeks of gestation, what is not fully formed that involves the lungs?
surfactant is not made: therefore Respiratory distress syndrome and hyaline membrane disease are probable
what is the normal composition of the air we breathe?
N2 79%
O2 21%
what are the 3 forms of Co2 transport in blood?
10% dissolved
30% bound to HbG
60% as HcO3
where is the respiratory control center?
in the medulla oblongata
what part of the brain can consciously override all autonomic control?
cerebral cortex
what monitors the oxygen and H+ sensors?
carotid and aortic bodies
what is a specific test to order for Co2 levels?
what is the main respiratory regulator?
carbon dioxide
what is the normal range for Co2?
what are the peripheral chemoreceptors?
carotid bodies: activated by hypoxia. decreases BP