Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the definition of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)?
• a diffuse pulmonary parenchymal injury associated w/ noncardiogenic pulmonary edema
• results in severe respiratory distress and hypoexmic respiratory failure
What is the pathologic hallmark of ARDS?
diffuse alveolar damage
How is ARDS clinically diagnosed?
• acute onset
• bilateral infiltrates
• pulmonary artery wedge pressure < 19 mm Hg
• PaO2/FIO2 ratio < 200 (ARDS) OR < 300 (acute lung injury)
What are predisposing conditions that can cause ARDS?
• direct pulmonary injury (ex. pulmonary infection, aspiration)
• indirect injury (ex. sepsis, pancreatitis, multiple trauma)
Name and describe the 3 phases of ARDS
• Exudative phase: injury to endothelium and epithelium w/ inflammation and fluid exudation

• Fibroproliferative phase: influx & proliferation of fibroblasts and other cellular elements; injury may resolve or become persistent

• Fibrosis phase: healing phase; resolution of inflammation & development of varying degrees of pulmonary fibrosis
What are the 2 major types of lung cancer? Which one is more common?
• non-small cell lung cancer (more common)
• small cell lung cancer
What are the 3 types of non-small cell lung cancer?
• squamous cell carcinoma
• adenocarcinoma
• large cell carcinoma
What is the #2 leading cause of lung cancer?
What is the most common primary cancer that metastasizes to the lung?
breast cancer
Which types of lung cancer typically arise near the hilar region?
• squamous cell carcinoma
• small cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancer typically arise in the periphery of the lung?
Name some syndromes assoicated w/ lung cancer
• Horner's syndrome
• Pancoast's syndrome
• Superior vena cava syndrome
What causes Horner's syndrome?
an apical lung tumor (called a Pancoast's tumor) that compresses the brachial plexus
What is the classic triad of Horner's syndrome?
• ptosis
• miosis
• anhidrosis
What is Pancoast's syndrome?
Horner's syndrome combined with pain in the arm and shoulder because of invasion of the brachial plexus
What causes SVC syndrome?
• obstruction of the venous drainage of the head and neck
• results in swelling and CNS symptoms
What is mesothelioma?
• malignancies involving mesothelial cells
• mesothial cells normally line the body cavities (ex. pleuro, peritoneum, pericardium, and testis)
Most pleural malignant mesotheliomas are associated with exposure to what?
What can mesothelioma on chest x-ray show?
• obliteration of the diaphragm
• nodular thickening of the pleura
• decreased size of the chest
• radiolucent sheetlike encasement of the pleura
• loculated effusion in more than 50% of patients
What is the most common lethal inherited disease in white persons?
Cystic fibrosis
Is cystic fibrosis autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive?
autosomal recessive
Give 2 general examples of interstitial lung disease
• sarcoidosis
• pneumoconiosis
Which disease is a noncaseating granulomatous disease of unknown etiology?
What are extrapulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis?
• arthritis
• cranial nerve palsies
• enlarged lymph nodes
• erythema nodosum
• fatigue/malaise
• visual loss
• weight loss
What are lab and radiographic findings of sarcoidosis?
• increased Ca++, ESR, & total protein
• bilateral hilar and paratracheal adenopathy
• pulmonary infiltration with a diffuse "ground glass" or a more nodular appearance
Give examples of pneumoconiosis
• asbestosis
• silicosis
• coal worker's pneumoconiosis
True/False: Productive cough and wheezing are usually not associated with asbestosis
• The correct answer is: True
What does chest xray typically show on patients with asbestosis?
diffuse linear opacities in the lower lungs and thickened pleura
Which is the oldest occupational lung disease?
Silicosis is associated with what industries?
• granite cutting
• metal mining
• pottery making
• soap production
Patients with asbestosis are at an increased risk for developing what? people with silicosis?
• asbestosis » increased risk for lung cancer and mesothelioma
• silicosis » increased risk for TB
What are chest xray findings in patients with silicosis?
• multiple small nodules and calcifacation of the hilar lymph nodes
• "egg shell" calcifications
What is the definition of a pulmonary abscess?
necrosis of the pulmonary tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection
Lung abscess most frequently arises as a complication of what?
aspiration pneumonia
What is the treatment for a pulmonary abscess?
Clindamycin for 4-6 weeks
What skeletal abnormality leads to chronic deterioration in lung function?
• kyphoscoliosis
• causes reduced lung volumes and increased stiffness of the chest wall
What is the definition of drowning?
death from asphyxia within 24 hours of submersion in water
What is the definition of near-drowning?
• survival beyond 24 hours after a submersion episode
• can still be fatal, but will die after 24 hrs
What are the 2 ways that people drown (or near-drown)?
• by aspirating water
• laryngospasm
What is the A-a gradient?
• the difference between the partial pressure of O2 in the alveoli (A) and in the artery (a)
• PAO2 - PaO2
• gives us an idea of how well the oxygen is moving from the alveoli to the arterial blood
What is the normal A-a gradient?
• 5-25 mm Hg
• (Age + 10)/4
• (Age/4) +4
What can cause an increased A-a gradient?
• pulmonary embolism
• diffusion defects
• right to left shunts
• increased age
• supine posture