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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
diffusing capacity of the lungs
is the rate of gas diffsion across the alveolar-capillary membrane
FEF50
forced expiratory midflow
FIF50
forced inspiratory midflow
what is the most reproducible indicator of airway obstruction and ususally indicates large airway involvemnet
FEV1
which portion of a FVC maneuver is effort dependent and effort independent?
1st 50% is effot dependent, 2nd 50% is effot independent
the difference between SVC and FVC reflects
the trapping of air in the lungs when the effort is forced
vital capactiy without a foced effrt is called
solw vital capacity (SVC)
expiratory flow below normal indicates ___ disease
obstructive
if lung volume is reduced, a __ disease is probably present
restrictive
upper airway obstruction will reduce flow rates in the initial __% of a forced expiratory VC maneuver
25
obstruction in the smaller airways will reduce flow rates in the __portion of a forced expiratory VC maneuver
last 75%
__ lung diseases cause reduced expiratory flows
obstructive
___ lung diseases reduced lung volumes
restrictive
reduced tital volume (VT) can be caused by ___ lung disease
both obstructive and restrictive
what is the most common cause of erroneous results in an FVC maneuver?
proper coaching
___ restrictive lung disorder reduce FVC by shrinking the lung.
restrictive
___ lung dysfunction causes decrease in the FVC by causeing a slow rise in the RV.
obstructive
if FVC is significantly smaller than SVC, ___ is occuring
air trapping
TLC is the sum of thsese to measurments
VC and RV
TLC is increased with most ___ lung disease
obstructive
TLC is decreased with most ___ lung disease
restrictive
inspiratory reserve volume and inspiraory capacity can be normal in ___ lung disease.
both obstructive and restrictive
the normal FEV1/FVC is about
0.75
FEV1/FVC is reduced with ___ disease
obstructive
FEV1/FVC is normal with ___ disease
restrictive
peak expiratory flow(PEF) is
the maximum flow rate achieved by the patient during the FVC maneuver
peak expiratory flow(PEF) is a popular measurement of patients with ___ lung disease
obstructive
Healthy young adults have a predicted MVV of about ___ L/min
170
maximal inspiratory pressure(MIP) and maximal exspiratory pressure(MEP) measures
respiratory muscle strength
in adults a VC less than __% is considered abnormal
80
how is a FVC maneuver done?
by having the patient expire as forcefully and rapidly as possible after inspiring maximally
what is back extrapolation?
the way most computerized spirometer correct for a slow start-of-test
FEV1% is also commonly written as
FEV1/FVC
in healty individuals, the FVC equal which other measurment?
VC
FVC is often lower than VC in people with ___ diseases.
obstructive
low FVC may be caused by ___ disease
restrictive or obstructive
FEV1 and FEV1/FVC are the most standardized indices of ___ disease
obstructive
what clinically defines an obstructive impairment as a result of spirometry?
reduction of FEV1 along with a reduced FEV1/FVC ratio
name some pathological conditions that can cause a decreased FEV1?
fibrosis, edema, lesions, neuromuscular disorders, obestiy and chest wall deformities
a decreased FEV1/FVC ratio is the hallmark of ___ disease
obstructive
the FEF25%-75% is indicative of the status of the ___ sized airways?
medium to small
what can be read directly from a F-V loop?
FVC, peak expiratory flow(PEF) and peak inpiratory flow(PIF)
the maximum expiratory flow volume(MEFV)curve is determined by
elastic recoil and resistance in small airways
the F-V loop is extreamly useful in diagnosing what size airway abnormalities?
large
what does PEF stand for?
peak expiratory flow
what does PIF stand for?
peak inspiratory flow
PEF is the maximum flow attained during a ___ maneuver?
FVC
PEF is primarily used to measure the function of which size airway?
large
MVV is reduced in people with moderate to severe ___ disease
obstructive
reduction of MVV my result from emphysema due to
airway collapse and hyperinflation
diffusing capacity of the lungs
is the rate of gas diffsion across the alveolar-capillary membrane
FEF50
forced expiratory midflow
FIF50
forced inspiratory midflow
what is the most reproducible indicator of airway obstruction and ususally indicates large airway involvemnet
FEV1
which portion of a FVC maneuver is effort dependent and effort independent?
1st 50% is effot dependent, 2nd 50% is effot independent
the difference between SVC and FVC reflects
the trapping of air in the lungs when the effort is forced
vital capactiy without a foced effrt is called
solw vital capacity (SVC)
expiratory flow below normal indicates ___ disease
obstructive
if lung volume is reduced, a __ disease is probably present
restrictive
upper airway obstruction will reduce flow rates in the initial __% of a forced expiratory VC maneuver
25
MVV may be normal in patients who have ___ disease
restrictive
MVV maneuver may be estimated by multiplying their __ by 35
FEV1
what is Raw?
airway resistance
how is pulmonary compliance measured?
sticking a balloon in the esophagus
what is the equation for a correction factor calculated for a spirometer?
expected volume divided by measured volume
name one combined restrictive and obstructive disorder.
cystic fibrosis
What does TET stand for?
total expiratory time
the FEV1/FVC compares...
the amount of air exhaled in 1 second to the total amount exhaled during an FVC maneuver
in ___ lung disorders, flow and volume are, in general, reduced equally
restrictive
name some pathologic conditions that alter the anatomic structures distal to the terminal bronchioles
lung compression, atelectasis, pneumonia, calcification, fibrosis, tumor, cavitation
Bernoulli's principle
as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by that fluid decreases.
CO2 has an affinity for hemoglobin approzimately ___ times greater than that of O2
210
Carboxyhemoglobinemia
hemoglobin that has carbon monoxide bound to it
RV is increase and VC is decreased in ___ disease
obstructive