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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the 4 types of Pulmonary Disorders.
1. Vascular
2. Obstructive
3. Restrictive
4. Infectious
Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary embolus
Pulmonary hypertension are what type of disorders?
They are Vascular disorders.
Name an 2 obstructive disease.
Asthma and COPD are both Obstructive disease.
Name the 3 types of restrictive diseases.
Chest wall - Kyphosis
Pleural - Effusions &
Parenchymal - Occupational, ARDS-IRDS and Atelectasis
Asthma is an Inflammatory Process. What are the hallmark signs of Asthma?
1. Bronchial smooth muscle
2. Mucosal edema
3. Hypersecretion of mucus.
What are the signs and symptoms of asthma?
Respiratory distress assoc with triggers
Decreased PEFR
* Pulmonary function test
Responsiveness to
Name 2 types of Obstructive Diseases.
1. Emphysema
2. Chronic Bronchitis
What are the characteristics of Emphysema?
* Progressive loss of lung
* "Pink Puffer"
* weight loss
* mild hypoxemia NO
* Few secretions
What are the characteristics of Chronic Bronchitis?
* Chronic Airway Inflammation
* "Blue Bloater"
* Obese
* Hypoxemia AND Hypercarbia
* Increased hematocrit
* Cor Pulmonale
* Copious amt secretions
What are the 3 Restrictive Pulmonary Disorders?
1. Chest wall: stiffness or
2. Pleural: inflammation or
space-occupying process
3. Parenchymal: fibrosis,
atelectasis, consolidation
Give 4 examples of Disorders of the Chest Wall.
1. Kyphoscoliosis
2. Congenital malformations
3. Rib fractures/frail chest
4. Pickwickian syndrome
Give 2 Pleural Space Disorders.
1. Pleural effusions,
2. Pneumothorax
The Pleural space is a ______ space.
"potential" space.
What kind of fluid can be in the pleural space?
Blood, transudate, exudate, empyema (pus).
With a Tension Pneumothorax, (that is with positive pressure in pleural space) what would you expect to see?
1. Tracheal shift
2. Cardiac compression
3. Lung deflation
Name Restrictive Parenchymal Disorders.
Restrictive parenchymal D/O: *Pneumoconioses "Occupational"-"dirt" diseases such as: Black lung (coal), Silicosis (silicon) and Asbestosis. The inert particles are walled off by immune cells that lay down fibrin. Fibrosis-stiff lung (PFT?); Barrier to diffusion (PaO2?)
What are the S/S of Viral Pneumonia?
Viral: Non productive cough; low grade temp; normal to low WBC; NO consolidation; Minimal V/Q changes; Minimal change on X-ray; Less in severity; No antibiotics.
What are the S/S of Bacterial Pneumonia?
Bacterial Pneumonia: Productive cough; High fever; Elevated WBC; Yes consolidation; Yes to V/Q changes; Infiltrates on x-ray; More severe; Yes to antibiotics.
What is the pathophysiology of Emphysema?
1. Imbalance of proteases and
2. Inflammation leads to
release of proteases
(elastase)from neutrophils.
3. Antiproteases inhibit
4. Enzymes break down elastin
leading to emphysema.
Autosomal Dominant Disorders follow predictable patterns of inheritance.
1. Males and females arer
equally affected.
2. Affected individuals
usually have an affected
3. Unaffected individuals do
NOT transmit the disease.
4. Offspring of an affected
individual have a 1 in 2
chance of inheriting the
Name 5 Autosomal Dominant Disorders.
1. Huntington disease
2. Marfan syndrome
3. Osteogenesis imperfecta
4. Von Willebrand disease
5. Neurofibromatosis
What does autosomal recessive mean?
Autosomal recessive disorders are due to a mutation of a recessive gene located on one of the autosomes.
How many chromosomes are autosomes?
22 pairs of chromosomes are autosomes. The remaining pair are the sex chromosomes confering maleness (XY) and femaleness (XX).
What is homozygous?
Homozygous is when both alleles for a trait are identical, the individual is homozygous for that trait.
What is heterozygous?
It two different alleles are present, the individual is heterozygous for the trait.
Name 5 autosomal recessive disorders.
1. Cystic fibrosis
2. PKU
3. Sickle cell anemia
4. Thalassemias
5. Galactosemia
Describe Sex-Linked (X-linked) Disorders.
Sex linked disorders are due to a mutation of the sex chromosomes.
1. Nealy all X-linked d/o are recessive.
2. They follow predictible patterns of inheritance.
3. Affected individuals are almost always male.
4. Affected fathers transmit the defective gene to NONE of their sons but to ALL of their DAUGHTERS.
5. Unaffected males do NOT carry the defective gene.
6. A carrier female has a 1 in 2 chance of producing an affected son and a carrier daughter.
Name 4 X-linked Recessive Disorders.
1. Muscular dystrophy
2. Hemophilia A and B
3. Fagile X Syndrome.
Name the 3 general types of genetic disorders.
1. Chromosomal aberrations
2. Single gene disorders
3. Polygenic disorders
What is metastasis?
Metastasis is the process whereby cancer cells escape their tissue of origin and initiate new colonies of cancer in distant sites.
What is angiogenesis?
Angiogenesis is the process of forming new blood vessels.
How is bone marrow suppression manifested?
Bone marrow suppression is manifested as: anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia.
Describe the chain of events required to transmit a disease.
Transmission of disease requires a chain of events. 1. passing the pathogen from the reservoir of the infection
2. through a portal of exit 3. to a susceptible host
4. through a portal of entry by a circumscribed mode of transmission.
Name the lines of defense to prevent and fight infection.
1. Skin and mucous membranes provide the first line of defense through mechanical and biochemical barriers.
2. Shedding of epithelium cilia action, acidic secretions, and enzymes help remove or destroy microorganisms before they gain access to the body.
What are bacteria?
1. Bacteria are single celled organisms that have no internal organelles.
2. They live in the intestines of humans and other creatures and participate in digestion.
3. They live in the soil and are responsibility for its fertility.
What are the 4 major classifications of bacteria based on cell wall and mechanism of movement?
1. Gliding bacteria (myxobacteria)
2. Spirochetes (Treponma pallidum)
3. Mycoplasmas (mycoplasma pneumoniae)
4. Rigid bacteria (mycobacterium tuberculosis
Name free living bacteria that are classified by their shape and response to Gram staining.
1. Cocci are round and nonmotile.
2. Bacilli are rod shaped and may be motile.
3. Spiral
Name the four families of parasites.
1. Protozoa
2. Nemathelminths (round worms)
3. Platyhelminthses (flat worms)
4. Arthropoda.
Name microorganisms responsible for infections in humans.
1. bacteria
2. viruses
3. fungi
4. parasites