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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
the volume of gas in the lungs after a maximal inspiration
Vital Capacity (VC)
or forced vital capacity
the volume of gas that can be forcefully expelled form the lungs after maximal inspiration in one second.
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
amount of air which can be inhaled.
Residual Volume (RV)
is the volume of gas remaining in the lungs after maximal expiration.
Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1)
is the volume of gas that can be forcefully expelled from the lungs after maximal inspiration in one second.
are continuous musical or whistling noises caused by turbulent airflow.
is a sensation of breathlessness that is excessive for any given activity.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
inappropriate dyspnea at night
dyspnea of recumbency
rapid, shallow breathing at a rate > 18/min
is rapid, deep breathing.
is an increase in the amount of air entering the alveoli, causing hypocapnia.
deficiency of carbon dioxide in the blood, often due to hyperventilation which can lead to alkalosis.
Pneumonia (consolidation)
inflammation of the lungs with consolidation (fluid filled).
an accumulation of air or gas in the pleural space, which may occur spontaneously or after trauma.
presence of gross blood in the pleural space.
Central cyanosis
bluish discoloration of skin and mucous membranes, which is caused by hypoxemia from respiratory failure.
is the widening of the anteroposterior thickness of the index finger at the base of the fingernail which exceeds the thickness of the distal interphalangeal joint and can be caused by both pulmonary and nonpulmonary causes.
Tactile fremitus
denotes palpable voice vibrations on the chest wall.
increased intensity and clarity of the spoken word during auscultation
Whispered pectoriloquy
softly spoken words are heard readily by auscultation.
auscultation of an "a" sound when the patient speaks an "e".
incomplete expansion of a lung or portion of a lung, airlessness of a lung that had been expanded.
Pleural effusion
the presence of liquid in the pleural space.
the expectoration of blood or blood tinged sputum.
discontinuous adventitious, abnormal breath sounds heard during auscultation.
is a crowing sound during breathing caused by turbulent airflow through a narrow upper airway.
Inspiratory stridor
stridor occuring on inspiration, suggestive of variable extrathoracic airway obstruction.
Expiratory stridor
- stridor occurring on expiration suggestive of variable intrathoracic obstruction.
Dead space
portion of air in the lung which does not participate with oxygen exchange.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
inappropriate breathlessness at night.
is dyspnea in the upright position relieved by recumbency emothorax.
the presence of chyle in the pleural space as the result of disruption of the thoracic duct (milky fluid - lymph and droplets of triglycerides which are alkaline contents of the lymphatic vessels) in the thoracic cavity.
accumulation of pus in a cavity.
a disease characterized by an increased responsiveness of the trachea and bronchi to various stimuli and manifested by widespread narrowing of the airways that changes in severity
Exercise-induced asthma
occurs mainly in patients with asthma, with attacks 5-10 minutes into exercise.
Triad asthma
is a combination of intrinsic asthma, aspirin sensitivity, and nasal polyps
Occupational asthma
may be triggered by various agents found in the work place and occurs a few
weeks to many years after initial exposure to an offending organism.
Cardiac asthma
represents bronchospasm precipitated by congestive heart failure.
Asthmatic bronchitis
denotes chronic bronchitis with features of bronchospasm that quickly responds to bronchodilator therapy.
Drug-induced asthma
is caused by many commonly used agents.
inflammation of the pleura, with exudation into its cavity and upon its surface.
Chronic bronchitis
is characterized by excessive secretion of broncial mucus and is manifested by productive cough for 3 months or more in at least 2 consecutive years in the absence of any other disease
denotes abnormal, permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, with destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis.
Acute respiratory failure (ARF)
of oxygenation or CO2 elimination severe enough to impair or threaten the function of vital organs.
inflammation of the smallest bronchial tubes.
congenital or acquired disorder of the large bronchi characterized by permanent abnormal dilatation and destruction of bronchial walls.
are chronic fibrotic lung diseases caused by inhalation of coal dust and various inert, inorganic, or silicate dusts.
a pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos particles