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86 Cards in this Set

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What are the structures that form the upper airways?
Nose (nasal cavity)
Mouth (oral cavity)
Pharynx
Larynx
Functions of the nose?
To filter and warm and humidify
Sense of smell
Resonating chamber for phonation
What is the nose made up of:
Bony skeleton from the facial bones
Cartilages united by dense connective tissue
What is the expanded region just behind the nares?
Vestibule
Houses the nasal hairs
What is the medical term for nose hairs and what are there function?
Vibrissae
They are the first barrier to entrance of coarse particles of dust and other substances larger than 10 microns 90% and 10% 100 microns.
What is the anterior one third of the nose lined with?
Stratified Simple Squamous
How many turbinates are there?
Three
What are the three turbinates?
Superior chonca
Middle Chonca
Inferior Chonca
What are the roles of the turbinates?
Separate airflow through the nasal cavity into slip streams to increase surface area and allow contact of mucous.

Play major role in allowing mucosa to humidify and warm the air we breath.
Where do the nasal sinuses of the skull drain?
into the turbinates
What lines the posterior two thirds of the nose?
Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium...
What is the function of the pseudo-stratified ciliated cells?
There cilia propel mucus which the goblet and submucosal and serious glands produce. It is propelled into the throat (pharynx) to be swallowed.
Name the paranasal sinuses
Frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid and maxillary
What are the functions of the paranasal sinuses?
Provide mucus for nasal cavity
Decrease the weight of the head
Phonation or resonating chambers
What lines the oral cavity and what is its function?
Stratified squamous epithelium and it is involved with food mastication speech swallowing etc...
What is the function of the soft palate?
The uvula and soft palate ...protect the nasal cavity by preventing food, fluids and emesis from entering the nasopharynx. It moves backwards and up closes the opening between the nasopharynx and oropharynx.

Plays a role in sneezing allowing the air to enter and clear the nasal cavity
Name three parts of the pharynx and the epithelium that lines each?
Nasopharynx-Pseudostratified
Oropharynx-stratified squamous
Laryngopharynx-stratified squamous
Name the cartilages that make up the larynx
Epiglottis
thyroid
cricoid
two arytenoid
two corniculate
two cuneiform
The largest of the larynx cartilages and its more common name
The thyroid and adams apple
What structure does the thyroid house and protect?
vocal cords
Which cartilage is shaped like a signet ring?
the cricoid
The smallest or narrowest portion of the upper respiratory tract of the infant
the cricoid
which is the narrowest region of the adult airway?
glottic opening
What is the function of the epiglottis?
It does not really move..the adams apple comes up to become one with it and close off entry to the larynx during vomiting swallowing ect. to prevent aspiration into lungs.
False vocal cords
Play no role in vocalization
True vocal cords
lower pair controlled by intrisinc muscles
What kind of epithelium is above the vocal cords?
Stratified squamous
What kind of epithelium is below the cords?
Pseudostratified ciliated
Primary function of the larynx
to insure free flow of air to and from the lungs and in speech
Secondary function of the larynx
to perform the valsalva maneuver when lifting, pushing, coughing and having a bowel movement
What is the average length and diammeter of the adult trachea?
11cm and a diameter of 2 to 2.5 cm
How many C shaped rings and what are they made of?
16-20 and cartilaginous rings
How many histological layers make up the trachel wall?
Mucosal epithlium
Lamina Propria
Submucosa
Identify the three cell types found in the mucosal epithelium:
Ciliated cells or pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

Goblet cells

Basal cells
Indentify the type of cells and involved in the lamina propria:
Located just beneath the basement membrane...contains neutrophils,eosinophils, basophils and lymphocyes for infection and allergies.
Identify the cells of the submucosa:
composed of cartilage and submucosal glands...cartilage gives support to trachea giving patency.

Produces the lamina propria

the serous component producing lysozyme and proteins that kill bacteria.
Produce musins
What is the composition of the mucus layer
Upper-gel layer
Lower-sol layer
cilia move this with a power stroke at a rate of 1000/1500 times per minute in a sweeping motion and cephalically which is 2cm per minute
How thick is the upper gel layer?
1-2 micrometers um
How thick is the lower-sol layer?
4-8 micrometer um
How big are each cilium?
5-7 micrometers um and 0.2 um in diameter.
What are some common factors that would slow mucociliary transport?
smoking-dehydration-suctioning-high oxygen concen.-hypoxia-atropine-pollutants- general anesthetics
What structures can be found in the lamina propria?
smooth muscle-nerves- elastic fibers- lymphatics-mast cells-blood vessels.
WBC for infections and allergies
What structures make up the submucosa
submucosal glands-serous glands- cilia- lysomes and glycoprotiens
How many lobes of the right lung and how many fishers?
3 lobes
upper
middle
lower
2 fissures
how many lobes make up the left lobe and how many fissures?
2 lobes and 1 fissure
what are the fissure of the right lobe
horizontal fissure and the right oblique fissure
what is the fissure of the left lobe
left oblique fissure
Name the lobes of the right lung

top is smalp
bottom is lamp
Upper lobe:
Apical
posterior
anterior

Middle Lobe:
lateral
medial

Lower lobe:
superior apical
medial basal
lateral basal
anterior basal
posterior basal
Names of the left lobe
Upper Lobe:
Apical
posterior
anterior

Middle Lobe:
superior lingual
inferior lingual

Lower Lobe:
superior apical
posterior basal
anterior basal
lateral basal
Name the structure that the trachea bifurcates into the mainstream
Carina
What are the differences between the right mainstem bronchus and left mainsteam bronchus 1st generation?
Right is wider shorter
smaller angle with trachea

Left is longer and more narrow
greater angle with the trachea
What are the differences in bronchus in the 2nd generation right and left lobes
Right has 3 lobar bonchi
left has 2 lobar bonchi
What are the differences in the 3rd generation with the right and left bronchi
right has 10 segmental bronchi
left has 8 segmental bronchi
What are the angles of the right and left bronchi
Right bronchi 20-30 almost continuous with the trachea and place for foreign bodies to end up

Left 45-65 a sharper angle

Infants have the same angles and foreign bodies can end up in both.
State the number of generations of bronchioles
5-10
How many generations of terminal bronchioles are there
one
What is the bronchioles airway diameter
1mm or less
What changes are there from the bronchi to bronchioles
no cartilage
no submucosal glands
no lymphatics
changes from pseudo-to a more cubodial non-cilia goblet cells are gone
lamina is thin and elastic smooth muscle
Where does gas exchange with adjacent alveoli occur?
in the canals of lambert
What are terminal bronchioles
conducting airways with no alveoli in thier walls collateral gas exchanges occurs here in the canals of lambert
What type of cells exisit
Clara cells no mucus no cilia
produce enzymes that detoxify
wbc to kill bacteria
surfactant production produces it too
stem cells
How can you tell respiratory bronchioles?
They have alveoli sacs within their ducts
What type of lining and muscle does the alveolar ducts have
Squamous epithelium and smooth muscle Last segment to have smooth muscle in their walls
How many alveoli in each alveolar sac
10-16 per sac
From where does bronchial artery nourshiment begin and end
Throughout the tracheobronchial tree through the terminal bronchioles...then at the respiratory bronchioles pulomonary circualtion kicks in
Where does venous return happen for the upper airways and the lower airways
venous return for the upper airways goes back to the heart via the azygous, hemiazygos and intercosatals veins...the lower airway blood empties back in the pulmonary circulation via the brochopulmoary anastomoses
when is the term shunt used
anytime venous blood bypasses the lungs without becoming oxygen rich. Brochopulmonary anastamoses is one of the normal shunts found in the body...2-6% of the blood return is shunted
Explain conducting airways or zone
includes all until respiratory broncholes
no gas exchanges "but have channels of lamber"
make up dead space in lungs 150ml
Explain respiratory zone
all units after terminal bronchioles
gas exchange occurs
2500ml volume
What is a lobule or secondary lobule
cluster of 3-5 terminal bronchioles
delineated by septa
what is the respiratory acinus and primary lobule
includes all strutures after terminal bronchioles where gas exchanges occurs between the blood and the lungs
130,000 respiratory bronchioles units in each lung having about 2000 alveoli
How many genrations or sacs where gas exchange occurs
3 gen of respiratory bronchiole
3 gen of alveolar ducts
10-16 sacs of alveolar
over 2000 alveoli in each respiratory unit
How many alveoli do adults have
300 million 0.1-1.3 mm in diameter
Name some charcteristics of alveoli
cover surface area of 80-85 square meters
70 of this is covered by capillaries for gas exchange
alveolar surface is 40 times greater than skin
elaborate denfense mech are required
What is the primary lobule called
the acinus
componets that make up the acinus
resp bronchioles
alveolar ducts
alveolar sacs
alveoli
Explain the alveolar-cappillary intersitial space membrane
It is thin double walled where epithelium and capillary join together this is termed the thin side more gas exchange

where alveoli have space between are called thick side less gas exchange
where does lymph drain
pulmonary and bronchopulmonary lymph nodes
Explain alveolar cell types
Type 1- simple squamous-most gas diffusion account for 95% surface area

Type II cells-cuboidal - 5% surface space-out number I by 2:1 produce surfactant
What is the function of the macrophages
3rd cell type...once monocytes phagocytic t cell trash trucks and remove deris and bacteria
it is thought that these make the pores of Kohn
Name the pulmonary vessel recieving venous blood from the right ventricle
Pulmonary artery
Name the region where the blood vessels and mainstem bronchus and nerves enter
right and left hilum
Name the tissue layers of the blood vessels from inside out
intima
media
aventitia
Explain an the artery layers
have large media layer
explain vein layers
have smaller media layer and larger adventitia
Which vessel type is known as the resistance vessels
Arterioles