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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
name the accessory organs of respiration and describe their functions
Nose, mouth, trachea
Filter, warm, moisten
They maintain proper temperature, clean, relatively sterile air
name the muscles of respiration
1. Diaphragm
2. Intercostals
3. Abdominals
4. Accessory muscles:
SCM
Trapezius
Platysma
Scalenes
what are the 4 volumes of the lungs
Four volumes
Tidal volume (TV)
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
Residual volume (RV)
what are the 4 capacities of the lungs
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
Functional residual capacity (FRC)
Vital capacity (VC)
Total lung capacity (TLC)
capacities are made up of a total of volumes, what are their formulas
-FRC= ERV + RV
-VC= IRV + TV + ERV (normal process)
-TLC= IRV + TV + ERV + RV
tidal volume is
Is the volume of air inspired or expired with each normal breath
Normal (easy), passive breathing
Air exchange is approx. 500ml
inspiratory reserve volume is
Is the extra volume of air that can be inspired over and above the normal tidal volume
Volume above and beyond a normal breath
It is approx 3000ml
expiratory reserve volume is
Is the extra amount of air that can be expired by forceful expiration after the end of a normal tidal expiration
Volume beyond normal expiration
Is approx 1100mL
residual volume is
Is the volume of air remaining in the lungs after the most forceful expiration
The air that you can not get out of your lungs
Gets bigger as you get older
This is approx 1200mL
inspiratory capacity is
This equals the tidal volume (TV) + Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
This is the amount of air a person can breathe beginning at the normal expiratory level and distending the lungs to the maximum amount
IC=TV+IRV
functional reserve capacity is
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) + Residual Volume (RV)
This is the amount of air that remains in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration
This is the volume of air in lungs before you start a new breath
resting state: FRC normally < 50% of Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
FRC=ERV+RV
total lung capacity is
Is the maximum volume to which the lungs can be expanded with the greatest possible inspiratory effort
Approx 5800mL
TLC=VC+RV
what is the vital capacity
The maximal amount of air you could move in a single breath
This is approx. b/t 3700-4600mL
VC=IRV+TV+ERV
VC=TLC-RV
what is the forced expiratory volume in 1 second
(FEV1)
Deep breath, expire as hard and as fast as you can, the amount expired in 1 second is the FEV1
This is approx. 75-80% of the volume capacity
Compliance = change V / change P
C = change V / change P
with lower compliance, a higher transmural pressure (pressure difference outside vs. inside the alveolus) is needed i.e. more work required to breathe
eg. pulmonary fibrosis - chest wall is more rigid
high compliance often also involves more difficulty expiring (loss of elastic recoil)
eg. emphysema
Normal composition of Air is:
Normal composition of Air:
N2: 79% O2: 21%
name the 3 forms of CO2 transport in blood:
3 forms of CO2 transport in blood:
10% dissolved
30% bound to hemoglobin
60% as bicarbonate
CO2 diffuses into cells
carbonic anhydase in RBC's catalyzes
deacribe how the Autonomic Nervous System innervates airway smooth muscle
Autonomic Nervous System innervates airway smooth muscle
parasympathetic: acetylcholine CONSTRICTS bronchioles
sympathetic: norepineprine from nerves or epinephrine in blood DILATE bronchioles
describe CO2 role in respiration
changes in alveolar PCO2 reflected rapidly in PaCO2
central chemoreceptors (medulla): detect CO2 - induced H+ concentration in brain CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
CO2 passes blood brain barrier but H+ doesn't
PCO2 above 70 - 80 mm depresses CNS; could cause acidosis
Normal 35-45
describe the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
Right shift increase in PCO2, temp,
2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), decreased ph (decreased O2 affinity)
Left shift increase in CO2 (increased O2 affinity)
name sometypesof Pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities
Pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities
Hypoventilation
Drugs,
respiratory center structural damage,
neuromuscular ds or
chest wall abnormalities
Abnormal diffusion
increased distance to alveolar capillary membrane,
increaseded rate of blood flow or
decreased # of open capillaries,
reduced driving pressure from alveolus to blood (high altitudes),
decrease in equilibration
Normal ABG Values:
Normal Values:
PO2 = 85-95 mm/Hg
PCO2 = 38-42 mm/Hg
pH = 7.38-7.42
Things that effect PO2:
1. altitude
A. (O2) at atmosphere
2. Ventilation – perfusion mismatch
A. can cause increased atelectasis, COPD, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary fibrosis, asbestosis
3. Diffusion impairments
A. not getting enough circulation to alveoli
anemia, pulmonary embolus
B. incr. O2 consumption – stress, hyperventilation, thyroid toxicosis, pregnancy, infection
4. Alveolar hyperventilation w/o O2 supplementation
A. COPD, asthma, pneumonia
Things that effect PO2
Things that effect PO2:
1. altitude
A. (O2) at atmosphere
2. Ventilation – perfusion mismatch
A. can cause  atelectasis, COPD, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary fibrosis, asbestosis
3. Diffusion impairments
A. not getting enough circulation to alveoli
anemia, pulmonary embolus
B. incr. O2 consumption – stress, hyperventilation, thyroid toxicosis, pregnancy, infection
4. Alveolar hyperventilation w/o O2 supplementation
A. COPD, asthma, pneumonia
Causes of Hypoventilation
Causes of Hypoventilation (decr PO2, inc PCO2):
1. Depression of respiratory center
CNS disorders, drugs, head trauma
2. Interruption of ventilatory motor nerves & muscles
Myasthenia gravis, drugs (muscle relaxants), severe kyphosis or scoliosis, severe arthritis (decreased ability to expand and contract intercostals)
3. Abnormal Lung Mechanism
Pleural effusion, pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis, pneumothorax, cancer, foreign body obstruction
what are causes of metabolic acidosis
Causes
Uncontrolled DM – ketoacidosis
ASA (aspirin) overdose
Renal failure – produces inadequate H+ excretion
Profuse diarrhea (unretractable)
what are causes of metabolic alkalosis
Causes
Vomiting
NG suctioning
Diuretic overdose
Too much bicarbonate
what are causes or respiratory acidosis
hypoventilation, hypercapnia, central respiratory depression, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, muscular dystrophy, asthma, airway obstruction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), increased ventilation-perfusion mismatch, diaphragm dysfunction or paralysis, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, pickwickian syndrome, respiratory muscle fatigue, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, bronchitis, kyphoscoliosis
what are causesof repiratory alkalosis
hyperventilation, hypocapnia, mechanical ventilation, alkalemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hyperventilation syndrome, anxiety, psychosis, meningitis, cerebrovascular accident, encephalitis, tumor, trauma, hypoxemia, drug reactions, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, pneumothorax, hemothorax, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, interstitial lung disease, sepsis, hepatic failure, heat exhaustion, metabolic acidosis, severe anemia, pulmonary disease