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18 Cards in this Set

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Hypoxemia
- reduced oxygenation of arterial blood
Hypoxia
- reduced oxygenation in tissue cells
Causes of Hypoxemia (4)
- decreased FIO2
- hypoventilation (causes hyercapnia
- diffusion abnormalities (can be caused by edema/fibrosis)
- abnomal ventilation-perfusion***
abnormal ventilation-perfusion
- most common cause = shunting- perfusion w/o ventilation
- this is seen in asthma, pneumonia, ARDS due to bronchoconstriction/edema
- deadspace ventilation = ventilation w/o perfusion
Alveolar Gas equation
PaO2= (Patm - Ph2o)(FIO2)-(PaCO2/0.8)
Arterial Oxygen Content
PaO2= Hb x Pulse ox x 1.34 + (PaO2 x 0.003)
CT angiography
- this s the new gold standard for DX of PE/infarction - less risk and less technique sensitive
Back up technique for evaluating PE
- V/Q scan
Asthma triad
- reversible airway obstruction
- airway inflammation
- hyperresponsiveness to various stimuli
** may also be component of atopic triad= dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma
5 triggers of asthma
- viral illness
- cold weather
- allergens
- exercise
- emotions
Asthma classifications
SEVERE PERSISTENT
- Continual Days w/ symptoms
- Frequent nights w/ symptoms
- FEV1 = <= 60%
- PEF variability = >30%
Asthma Classifications
Moderate Persistant
- Daily day symptoms
- Night symptoms >=5 months
- FEV1= >60-80%
- PEF variability = >30%
Asthma Classifications
Mild Persistent
- 3-6/week days with symptoms
- 3-4/month nights w/ symptom
- FEV1= >80%
- PEF var. 20-30%
Asthma classifications
Mild intermittent
- <2/week days w/ symptoms
- <2/month nights w/symptoms
- >80% FEV1
- <20% PEV var
Asthma Meds
Rescue
- short acting bronchodilators
- Albuterol
Asthma Meds
Control
- inhaled corticosteroids - flovent or pulmicort
- Combination - fluticasone and salmeterol
- Mast cell stabilizers - cromolyn
- Leukotriene Antagonists - singular
Asthma meds
Acute Exacerbations
- oral steroids (prednisone)
Asthma Meds
Therapy
- Intermittent - rescue meds only
- Persistent - need rescue and control meds