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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Risk?
Incidence of susceptible
------------------------
time
What do you need to know to measure true risk?
The beginning cohort and follow it to the end of time
How do you measure risk in a community where the population is always changing?
By estimating it
How do you estimate risk?
Incidents in Time
--------------------------
Avg population during Time
What does this population risk estimate give you?
The incidence rate
What is the Hazard rate used for?
Statistical tests of effects on survival when people remain in a study for differing time periods.
What does the Hazard rate give?
The instantaneous incidence rate - as the time approaches zero.
What are 3 things that determine when Incidence Rate is useful?
-Relatively rare conditions
-Condition is not recurring
-Relatively short time interval
What is Point prevalence?
# people with condition today
----------------------------
population of people today
What is Period prevalence?
# of people w/ condition at any time within a PERIOD of time
------------------------------
Average population over period
What does longer survival with condition do to prevalence?
It increases
What does a net in-migration of cases do to prevalence?
Increases
What does faster mortality do to prevalence?
It decreases
What does a shorter period of illness (cure) do to prevalence?
It goes down
What does net out-migratin of cases do to prevalence?
It decreases
How does prevalence differ in an acute vs chronic condition?
Acute = lower
Chronic = higher
What are elements shown to modify risk of health outcomes?
Risk factors
How do we normally measure risk of risk factors?
By doing an RCT or Cohort study
How do we measure the risk of a risk factor for lead poisoning where we can't give people the illness to measure?
ESTIMATE using the odds ratio from a case control study!
What are the 2 things that allow us to use a case-control study?
-Relatively low disease incidence
-When study biases are controlled
When does the ODDS RATIO approximate relative risk?
When the condition is RARE
What is the Relative Contribution of a risk factor to a particular condition?
Attributable risk
How is Attributable risk calculated?
RR - 1
------
RR
What is the most common activity in medical care for controlling risk?
Tertiary prevention - medical care of a disease or injury
What is the cheapest and most cost-effective method of controlling risk?
Primary prevention - reducing the risk of initiating pathogenesis
What is secondary prevention?
Detection of an asymptomatic illness by screening.
Calculate odds ratio (OR)
Exposed events
--------------
Nonexposed events
Calculate attributable risk
Exposed risk - Nonexposed risk
------------------------------
Exposed risk
Fast way to calculate attributable risk
OR-1
----
OR
What is population attributable risk?
What proportion of the total population is at risk of an event due to a risk factor
Calculate population attributable risk
Risk in Total - Exposed events
---------------------------
Risk in Total
Fast way to calculate population attributable risk
Proportion exp (RR - 1)
-----------------------
1 + (Proprn exp)(RR-1)