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142 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Deficiency Needs
Basic human needs
1. Biological Needs
2. Safety Needs
3. Belongingness and Love Needs
4. Self- and Social-Esteem Needs
Growth needs
Higher-order human needs
1. Self-actualization
2. Knowledge and Understanding
3. Aesthetic Needs
Involves a simultaneous exchange of message between two or more people
A collection of interdependent parts, parts arranged so that a change in one produces corresponding changes in the remaining parts
Exists when things have a reciprocal influence on one another
Audience members responses, both verbal and nonverbal, to a speaker
Meaning produced by communicators
Essential meaning of what a speaker wants to convey
Relational Component
Collective impact of the verbal and nonverbal components of a message as it is conveyed
Something that stands for or suggest something else by reason of relationship
Process by which ideas are translated into a code that can be understood by receiver
Process by which code is translated back into ideas
Physical medium through which communication occurs
Process by which we give meaning to our experiences
Individuals who share in listening to a speech
Creative process used to generate a large number of ideas
Degree to which an audience trusts and believes in a speaker
General Purpose
Principle function of a speech, inform persuade, entertain
Specific Purpose
The goal or objective the speaker hopes to achieve in speaking to a particular audience
Thesis Statement
A single declarative sentence that focuses the audience’s attention on the central point of the speech
Creative process by which the substance of the speech is generated
A forecast of the main points of speech
Main Points
Key ideas that support the thesis statement
Transitional statements that bridge main points
Manuscript Delivery
Mode of presentation that involves writing out a speech completely and reading it
Memorized Delivery
Mode in which speech is written and memorized before being presented
Impromptu Delivery
A spontaneous, unrehearsed mode of presenting a speech
Extemporaneous Delivery
A mode of presenting that combines careful preparation and spontaneous speaking
Speech Anxiety
Unpleasant thoughts or feelings aroused by the anticipation of a real or imagined speech in public
Communication Apprehension
Fear about communicating interpersonally and in groups, not just in public
Physiological Arousal
Physical change that occur when a personal is aroused, increased pulse or more energy
Coping Skills
Mental and physical techniques used to control arousal and anxiety
Communicating silently to oneself (intrapersonal)
Negative Self-Talk
A self-defeating pattern of intrapersonal personal communication, self-criticizing, pressuring
Constructive Self-Talk
Positive coping statements instead of neg. self-talk
Visual Imagery
Process of mentally seeing oneself confidently and successfully performing an action or series of actions
Process of receiving, attending to, and assigning meaning to aural as well as visual and tactile stimuli
Active Listening
Listening that involves conscience and responsive participation in communication transaction
Active Mindfulness
Degree to which speakers and audiences are consciously aware of the transactions between them
Selective Attention
Making a conscious choice to focus on some people and some messages, rather than others
Sensorial Involvement
A process that involves listening with all the senses, not simply the sense of hearing
That act of understanding
The act of storing what was communicated in either short term or long-term memory
A learned system of beliefs customs and values
Information that surrounds an event and contributes to the meaning of the event
Information that surrounds an event and contributes to the meaning of the event
Generally agreed upon meaning of a word, usually found in the dictionary
The secondary meaning of a word with a strong emotional personal and subjective component
Pinpoint Concentration
Listening that focuses on specific details rather than patterns in a message
Wide-band Concentration
Listening that focuses on patterns rather than details
Appreciative Listening
Listening that involves obtaining sensory stimulation or enjoyment from others
Critical Listening
Listening for the purpose of making reasoned judgments about speakers and credibility of their message
Cross Cue-Checking
Gauging what a person says verbally against the nonverbal behaviors that make up metacommunication
Short-Term Goals
Those ends that we can reasonably expect to achieve in the near term
Long-Term Goals
Those ends that we can hope to achieve only over an extended period of time
Audience Diversity
Cultural, demographic, and individual characteristics that vary among audience members
Basic and vital data regarding any population
Cultural Diversity
Differences among people in terms of beliefs customs and values- in a sense of their worldview
Demographic Diversity
Variations among people in terms of such attributes as socioeconomic background and level of education
Socioeconomic Status
Social grouping and economic class to which people belong
Individual Diversity
How individuals in an audience differ in terms of knowledge beliefs attitudes value
An assertion about the properties or characteristics of an object
Primitive Beliefs
Learned by different contact with the object if belief and reinforced be unanimous social consensus
Central Beliefs
Based directly or indirectly on authority
Peripheral Beliefs
Least central type of beliefs and easiest to change
A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object
Our most enduring beliefs about right and wrong
Rhetorical Situation
A natural context of persons events objects relations and an exigence (goal) which strongly invites utterance
Limitation on choices in a speech situation
System of principles of right and wrong that govern human conduct
Ethical Relativism
No universal ethical principles
Cultural Relativism
Ethical criteria in one culture should not apply to others
There are ethical standards that apply to all situations regardless of the group or cultural
Categorical Imperative
Kant’s ethical principle that we should act only in way that we would will to an universal law.
Greatest among of happiness for greatest number of people
Situational Ethics
Overriding ethical maxims, but you should set them aside in situations to fulfill a higher law or principle
Good Reasons
Statements based on moral principles
Perception by the audience that speaker cares about their needs and concerns
Something that is verifiable as true
Secondary Sources
Information sources that rely on other primary sources rather than gathering info firsthand
Primary Source
Original source of info
Numerical summaries of data
Expert Opinion
Quotation from someone with special credentials on subject matter
Extended story that is fully developed
Narrative Probability
Internal coherence of believability of a narrative
Narrative Fidelity
Degree to which a narrative tings true to real life experiences
Process of gathering info
Boolean Operators
Terms such as: and, or, & not used to narrow or broaden a computerized search or two
Listing of sources of info
Summary of an article or a report
Main Points
Key ideas that support the thesis statement of a speech
An idea that supports a main point
Supporting Points
Idea that supports a subpoint
Time Pattern
Patter of organization based on chronology or a sequence of events
Extended Narrative
Pattern of organization in which the entire body of the speech is the telling pf a story
Spatial Pattern
Pattern of organization based physical space or geography
Categorical Pattern
Pattern of organization based on natural divisions in the subject matter
Problem Solution Pattern
Analyzes a problem in terms of harm, significance, cause, and proposes a solution that is described, feasible, and advantageous
Stock Issues Pattern
4-point pattern of organization that is based on 1. ill, 2. blame, 3. cure, and 4. cost
Refutational Pattern
Pattern of organization that involves stating the argument refuted, stating the objection to the argument, proving the objection to the argument, presenting the impact of the refutation
Casual Pattern
Moves from cause to effect of effect to cause
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
A 5-step organizational scheme, developed by Alan Monroe, including: 1. attention, 2. need, 3. satisfaction, 4. visualization, 5. action
Call And Response Pattern
Call by the speaker followed by response from the audience
Spiral Pattern
Employs repetition of points, with points growing in intensity as the speech builds to its conclusion
Star Pattern
All the points are of equal importance are presented in order of common theme
Wave Pattern
Main theme is represented by a phrase is repeated again and again
Rhetorical Question
Question that the audience isn’t expected to answer out loud
Formal Outline
Detailed outline used in speech preparation, but not, in most cases, in the actual presentation
Speaker’s Notes
Brief notes with key words, usually written on cards, used by a speaker when presenting a speech
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
The idea that what people perceive is influenced by language in which they think and speak
Person’s assumption that the meaning he or she gives to a word or phrase is its exclusive meaning
Inclusive Language
Language that helps people believe that they not only have a stake in matters of societal importance but also have power in this regard
Marginalizing Language
Language that diminishes people’s importance and makes them appear to be less powerful
Totalizing Language
Language that defines people exclusively on the basis of a single attribute, such as race
Competence-Enhancing Language
Words that emphasize rather than undermine audience perceptions of a speaker’s competence
Verbal Qualifiers
Words and phrases that erode the impact of what a speaker says in a speech
Language Intensity
Degree to which words and phrases deviate from neutral
Sexist Language
Languages such as housewife and fireman, that stereotype gender roles
Nonverbal Behavior
Wordless system of communication
Physical surroundings as you speak and distance from audience
Zone Of Interaction
Area of audience in which speaker and audience members can make eye contact
Nonverbal symbol that can be substituted for a word
Nonverbal symbols used to visualize what is being spoken
Nonverbal behaviors that influence the speech transaction
Self-Adapting Behaviors
Nonverbal behaviors used to cope with nervousness
Proactive Delivery
Planned and rehearsed presentation
Presentational Media
Channels of communication that extend the five basic senses: touch, sight, sound, taste, and smell
Visual Media
The use of the sense of sight to communicate a message
Pie Chart
Graph often used to show proportions of a known quantity
Line Graph
Graphic used to shows points in time
Bar Chart
Graphic used for comparing data side by side
Organizational Chart
Graphic that illustrates hierarchal relationships
Flow Chart
Graphic designed to illustrate spatial relationships or sequence of events process
Flip Chart
Large tablet used to preview the outline of a presentation or to record info generated by an audience
Overhead Transparency
Graphic that can be projected
Audio Media
Aural channels you can use to augment your speech, record a famous speaker
Spanish term that loosely translates as the desire to succeed
Informative Speaking
Process by which audience gains new info or perspective on old info
Learning Styles
Difference in the way people think and learn about new info
Audience Involving
Informative topic and speech that succeeds in gaining the audiences attention
Audience Appropriate
Informative topic and speech that takes into account the occasion and audience members’ belief systems
Audience Accessible
Content the audience is able to understand, regardless of complexity