• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an assumption that attempts to explain why or how things are related to each other
theory
: the explanation of criminal behavior, as well as the behavior of police, attorneys, prosecutors, judges, correctional personnel, victims, and other actors in the criminal justice system
criminological theory
a product of the Enlightenment based on the assumption that people exercise free will and are thus completely responsible for their actions
classical theory
the principle that a policy should provide “the greatest happiness shared by the greatest number”
utility
an imaginary agreement to sacrifice the minimum amount of liberty necessary to prevent anarchy and chaos
social contract
the prevention of individuals from committing crime again by punishing them
special or specific deterrence
the attempt to prevent people in general from engaging in crime by punishing specific individuals and making examples of them
general deterrence
: a modification of classical theory in which it was conceded that certain factors, such as insanity, might inhibit the exercise of free will
neoclassical theory
according to biological theories, a criminal’s innate physiological makeup produces certain physical or genetic characteristics that distinguish criminals from noncriminals
biological inferiority
the study of “criminal” human beings
criminal anthropology
a person who reverts to a savage type
atavist
a structure surrounding the brain stem that, in part, controls the life functions of heartbeats, breathing, and sleep
limbic system
persons characterized by no sense of guilt, no subjective conscience, and no sense of right and wrong. They have difficulty in forming relationships with other people; they cannot empathize with other people
psychopaths, sociopaths, antisocial personalities
the dissociation of the individual from the collective conscience
anomie (Durkheim)
the general sense of morality of the times
collective conscience
a group of sociologists at the University of Chicago who assumed in their research that delinquent behavior was a product of social disorganization
Chicago School
the condition in which the usual controls over delinquents are largely absent, delinquent behavior is often approved of by parents and neighbors, there are many opportunities for delinquent behavior, and there is little encouragement, training, or opportunity for legitimate employment
social disorganization
the contradiction between the cultural goal of achieving wealth and the social structure’s inability to provide legitimate institutional means for achieving the goal; it is caused by the inability of juveniles to achieve status among peers by social acceptable means
anomie (Merton and Cohen)
a means by which a person can learn new responses by observing others without performing any overt act to or receiving direct reinforcement or reward
imitation or modeling
Sutherland’s theory that persons who become a criminal do so because of contacts with criminal patterns and isolation from anticriminal patterns
differential association
: a theory that explains criminal behavior and its prevention with the concepts of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction, punishment, and modeling or imitation
learning theory
the presentation of a stimulus that increases or maintains a response
positive reinforcement
the removal or reduction of a stimulus whose removal or reduction increases or maintains a response
negative reinforcement
a process in which behavior that previously was positively reinforces is no longer reinforced
extinction
the imposition of a penalty for criminal wrongdoing
punishment
a view in which people are expected to commit crime and delinquency unless they are prevented from doing so
social control theory
a theory that emphasizes the criminalization process as the cause of some crime
labeling theory
the way people and actions are defines as criminal
criminal process
a theory that assumes society is based primarily on conflict between competing interest groups and that criminal law and the criminal justice system are used to control subordinate groups. Crime is caused by relative powerlessness
conflict theory
the ability of some groups to dominate other groups in a society
power differentials
in conflict theory, the inability to dominate other groups in society
relative powerlessness
theories of crime causation that are generally based on a Marxist theory of class struggle
radical theories
for radical criminologists, the competition among wealthy people and among poor people and between rich people and poor people, which causes crime
class struggles
a group of social scientists who argue that critical criminologists need to redirect their attention to the fear and the very real victimization experienced by working-class people
left realists
inequalities that are defined by a person as unfair or unjust
relative deprivation
an approach that suggests the solutions to all social problems, including crime, are the transformation of human beings, mutual dependence, reduction of class structures, the creation of communities of caring people, and universal social justice
peacemaking criminology
: a perspective on criminality that focuses on women’s experiences and seeks to abolish men’s control over women’s labor and sexuality
feminist theory
men’s control over women’s labor and sexuality
patriarchy
an area of critical thought that, among other things, attempts to understand the creation of knowledge, and how knowledge and language create hierarchy and domination
postmodernism