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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Non-governmental
Policy Makers
1. Interest Groups
2. Political Parties
3. Research Organizations
4. Communications Media
5. Individual Citizen
Interest Groups
Non-governmental Policy Makers
1/5
Represent Labor, agriculture, business, education, health, etc. areas of society that are a major source of demand for public policy.
Political Parties
Non-governmental Policy Makers
2/5
Interested primarily in contesting the elections in order to control the personnel of gov't. Care more about power than policy.
Research Organizations
Non-governmental Policy Makers
3/5
Their studies and reports provide information and data on policy issues, development alternatives and proposals for handling problems and evaluating effectiveness of public policy.
Communications Media
Non-governmental Policy Makers
4/5
Particpate as suppliers of information and play a huge roll on what gets on the agenda.
Individual Citizen
Non-governmental Policy Makers
5/5
We vote.
Policy Problems
Condition or situation that produces needs or dissatisfaction amoung people and for which relief or redress by gov't is sought.
Rational-Comprehensive Theory Elements (6)
1. Problem that can be separated from other problems.
2. Goals, values, or objectives can be clarified and ranked according to importance
3. Various alternatives are examined
4. Consequences of the alternatives ar examined
5. Alternatives and consequence are compared
6. A & C that maximizes the goals of the decision maker is chosen.
Incremental Theory Elements (6)
1. Selection of a goal and it analysis are intertwined with one another.
2. Decision maker considers only some of the alternatives for dealing with one another.
3. Each alternative has limited consequences and are considered
4. Problem is continually redefined
5. No single decision is right.
6. Incremental decision making is remedial and deals with present situations rather than future goals.
Nine Decision Criteria (9)
1. Organizational
2. Professional
3. Political
4. Personal
5. Policy
6. Decision Rule
7. Ideological
8. Constituency
9. Deference
Organizational
Decision Criteria
1/9
Decisions based upon organizational influence
Professional
Decision Criteria
2/9
Different professions attack problems in different ways
Personal
Decision Criteria
3/9
Guided by personal morals and values.
Policy
Decision Criteria
4/9
Because it is the right thing to do.
Ideological
Decision Criteria
5/9
Religion, conservative, liberal
Political
Decision Criteria
6/9
Party loyalty.
Constituency
Decision Criteria
7/9
Loyal to those that paid for them to be there.
Deference
Decision Criteria
8/9
Deferring to the judgement of others
Decision Rule
Decision Criteria
9/9
A decision or precedence will stand.
Bargaining
Decision Making Style
1/3
Negotiation based upon explicit: facts on the table; or implicit: future promises or support/favor
Persuasion
Decision Making Style
2/3
Gather facts and information and use reason and logic to convince someone else.
Command
Decision Making Style
3/3
I'm the boss, because I said so.
Rational-Comprehensive Theory
Theory of Decision Making
1/3
How a rational person would make decisions as well as from theories of rational-decision making developed by mathmeticians, psychologists, and other social scientists
Incremental Theory
Theory of Decision Making
2/3
Making minor changes; predictable
Mixed Scanning
Theory of Decision Making
3/3
Enables decision makers to use both the Rational-Comprehensive theory and Incremental Theory in different situations
Policy Process
5 steps
1. Identification of a problem
2. Formulate
3. Adopt
4. Implement
5. Review
Policy
A relatively stable, purposive course of action followed by an actor in dealing with a problem or matter of concern
Six Attibutes of Public Policy
1. Links policy to purposive or goal oriented action
2. Consist of corses of action taken over time rather than their separate decisions
3. Emerges in response to policy demands
4. Involves what gov't does not what it intends to do
5. May be either positive or negative
6. Is based upon law and is authoritative
Types of Policy (9)
1. Substantive
2. Procedural
3. Distributive
4. Regulatory
5. Redistributive
6. Material
7. Symbolic
8. Private Goods
9. Collective Goods
Substantive Policy
Type of Policy
1/9
What the gov't intends to do
Procedural Policy
Type of Policy
2/9
Involves how something is going to be done or who is going to take action
Distributive Policy
Type of Policy
3/9
Allocation of services or benefits to particular segments of the population
Regulatory Policy
Type of Policy
4/9
Imposes restricition or limitation on the behavior of individuals or groups
Redistributive Policy
Type of Policy
5/9
Deliberate efforts to shift the allocation of wealth, income, property, or rights among broad classes or groups of the population. The Haves to the Have-Nots.
Material Policy
Type of Policy
6/9
Provide tangible resources or substanctive power to their beneficiaries, or impose real disadvantages on those adverseley affected
Symbolic Policy
Type of Policy
7/9
Have little real material impact on people. (Burning of the flag)
Collective Goods
Type of Policy
8/9
If provided for one, must provide for all.
Private Goods
Type of Policy
9/9
Available in the marketplace, purchased or charged by the individual user.
Self Regulatory Policy
Type of Regulatory Policy
1/2
More controlled by the regulated group as a means of protecting or promoting the interests of its members.
Theoretical Approaches to Public Study (5)
1. Political Systems Theory
2. Group Theory
3. Elite Theory
4. Institutionalism
5. Rational-Choice Theory
Political Systems Theory
Theoretical Approach to Public Study
1/5
Response to demands arising from an environment
Group Theory
Theoretical Approach to Public Study
2/5
Policy as a result of the group struggle
Elite Theory
Theoretical Approach to Public Study
3/5
-Reflecting the values and preferences of a governing elite.
-The few who have power decide the policy
-The few are not typical of the masses
-Non-elite to elite move must be slow to avoid revolution
-Elites are self serving and want to keep their spot in the elite
-Elites influence the mass, not vice versa
Instituionalism
Theoretical Approach to Public Study
4/5
-Theory stressing the importance of organization arrangements and rules in shaping public policies.
-concentrates on describing the more formal and legal aspects of governmental institutions.
Rational-Choice Theory
Theoretical Approach to Public Study
5/5
Public policies result from the pursuit of self interest by citizens and officals.

Act rationally to protect own self interest
Political Culture
Wideley shared attitudes, values, and beliefs, concerning the nature and use of political power.
Identifiable Political Cultures
(3)
1. Individualistic
2. Moralistic
3. Traditionalist
Individualistic
Political Culture
1/3
Emphasizes private concerns and views gov't as a utalitarian device to be used to accomplish what the people want.
Moralistic
Political Culture
2/3
Views gov't as a mechanism for advancing public interests
Traditionalistic
Political Culture
3/3
Takes a paternalistic and elitist view of gov't and favors its use to maintain the existing social order.
Socioeconomic Conditions
Public policy often arises out of conflicts among groups of people, private and official, with differeing interests and desires.
Theories of Decision Making (3)
1. Rational-Comprehensive Theory
2. Incremental Theory
3. Mixed Scanning
Offical Policy Makers (4)
Have the legal authority to engage in the formation of public policy

1. Legislature
2. Executive
3. Administrative Agencies
4. Courts
Legislature
Offical Policy Makers
1/4
Engage in central political task of law making and policy formation
Executive
Offical Policy Makers
2/4
The President, proposes legislation to Congress. Has many advisors and several staff agencies
Administrative Agencies
Offical Policy Makers
3/4
Often significantly involved in formation of public policies. Able to identify needed changes in existing policy
Courts
Offical Policy Makers
4/4
Greatly affected the nature and content of public policy by exercising judical review and statutory interpretation in cases brought before them.
Personal Staff
Legislative Staff
1/2
Work for the individual members of Congress
Institional Staff
Legislative Staff
2/2
Provide information services to Congress