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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Methods to Assess Qualifications (9)
1. Review of biographical data
2. Aptitude tests
3. Ability tests
4. Performance exams
5. References
6. Performance evaluations
7. Interviews
8. Assessment centers
9. Probationary period
Aptitude Test
Measures general intelligence or cognitive ability. Inexpensive to administer and score, and highly reliable.
Personality Test
Measures personality traits or characteristics. Results are compared against other successful employees or job constructs.
Ability Test
Measure the extent to which applicants possess generalized abilities or skills related to job performance through empirical or construct validation.
Interviews
Gives employers the opportunity to observe an applicant's appearance and interpersonal skills and to ask questions about subjects not covered on the application
References
Used to verify educational and employment records or to obtain information about the applicant's skills or personality.
Probationary Appointment
Possesses the highest possible validity and reliability factors because it measures actual job performance
Biodata
Moderate validity, low expense, high reliability
False Positive
Person does well on the test, but does not turn out to do well on the job.
False Negative
Person fails to do well on the test, but does well on the job
Test Validation Methods
1. Criterion validation
2. Construct validation
3. Content validation
Criterion Validation
Requires that a test score be significantly correlated, with important elements of job performance.
Construct Validation
Involves both identifying psychological traits and aptitudes that relate to successful job performance and devising a test that measures these traits
Content Validation
Requires that the job be analyzed to determine its duties; the conditions that make it easy or hard; performance standards; competencies required to perform tasks
Equity Theory
Helps us understand how a worker reaches the conclusion that he is being treated fairly or unfairly.
Expectancy Theory
Attempts to reconstruct the mental processes that lead an employee to expend a certain amount of effort toward meeting a work objective
Flextime
Employees are expected to work during core hours. Programs allow employees to work longer hours to have more days off
Job Sharing
Splitting of one job between two part-time employees on a regular basis.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Management philosophy that combines scientific methods for experimentation and continous improvement of processes with teamwork and participative decision making as the approach for implementing improvement changes
Organizational Development
Managers and supervisors are responsible for helping to make changes in the work environment so skills are used more effectively
Action Research
Gathering data about practical problems and feeding the data back to employee participants for interpretation and assessment
Team Building
Designed to assist members of a work group to increase their productivity as a group.
Reasons to Evaluate Performance
Personnel decisions like promotions and merit-pay increases are connected to performance.
Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act
Requires employers to validate any personnel technique that affects an employees chance for promotion
Person-based Rating Systems
Rater compares employees against other employees or against some absolute standard
Performance-based Rating Systems
Measure each employee's behaviors aganst previously established behaviors and standards
Appraisal Methods (7)
1. Graphic rating
2. Ranking
3. Forced-choice
4. Essay
5. Objective
6. Critical incident
7. Behaviorally anchored rating scales
Graphic Rating Scales
Consist of a listing of desirable/undesirable personality traits in one column and beside each box the rater marks to indicate the extent to which the employee demonstrates the trait
Ranking Techniques
Require the rater to rank-order each employee on each of the listed traits.
Forced-choice Technique
Job analysists determine which traits or behaviors are most related to a successful job performance. The rater is asked to choose the one that corresponds most closely with the employee's job performance
Essay Format
Oldest and widely used. Rater makes a narrative comments about the employee.
Objective Method
Measure of work performance against previously established standards.
Work Sampling
Records representative examples of good (or bad) performance in relation to agreed-upon employee objectives
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
Employs objective performance criteria in a standardized appraisal format. A range of possible standards for each task are created then translated into numerical scores.
Characteristics of an Effective Appraisal System
1. Separate systems for separate purposes
2. Raters have the opportunity, ability, and desire to rate employees
3. Job analysis and performance appraisal need to be more closely related
4. Appraisal must be tied to long-range employee objectives
5. Criteria used to select supervisors
OSHA
Passed in 1970 to ensure that working conditions for all Americans meet minimum health and safety standards.
Workers Compensation
An insurance system with variable payment rates for employers based on the histroical risks of accident or injury their employees have suffered.
Claimant Fraud
Colllusion among health care providers and employees to increase reimbursable costs unnecessarily
Premium Fraud
Classifying employees in less dangerous positions in an effort to reduce the cost of the premium for insurance.
Property Rights
Public employees have rights to their jobs that exceed those of private employees
Due Process of Law
5th and 14th amendments to the Constitution require that a govt may deprive an individual of life, liberty, or property only after this
Minimal Due Process
Requires that an employer notify an employee of a violation and give the employee a chance to state their side of the story
Sexual Harassment
Unwelcomed sexual advances, request for favors, or other behavior of sexual nature when a condition for employment, submission or rejection affects an individual, or conduct as the purpose interfering with performance or creates a negative work environment.
Critical Incident
Records representative examples of good (or bad) performance in relation to agreed-upon employee