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74 Cards in this Set

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Public Personnel Management Functions (4)
1. Planning
2. Acquisition
3. Development
4. Sanction
Planning
(Public Personnel Management Function)
1/4
Budget preparation and human resource; dividing tasks among employees; decides how much jobs are worth (pay & benefits)
Acquisition
(Public Personnel Management Function)
2/4
Recruitment and selection of employees
Development
(Public Personnel Management Function)
3/4
Orienting, training, motivating, and evaluating employees to increase their competencies
Sanction
(Public Personnel Management Function)
4/4
Establish and maintain expectations and obligations that employees and the employer have toward one another; discipline, grievances, health & safety, employee rights
Traditional Personnel Systems (4)
1. Political Patronage
2. Civil Service
3. Collective Bargaining
4. Affirmative Action
Political Patronage
(Traditional Personnel Systems)
1/4
Legislative or executive approval of individual hiring decisions, particularly for policy making positions, based upon the loyalty to the party or official
Civil Service
(Traditional Personnel Systems)
2/4
A professional public service as the best way to achieve the values of efficiency and individual rights and a bureacracy responsive to political directions
Collective Bargaining
(Traditional Personnel Systems)
3/4
Exists within civil service systems. Reflect the value of individual rights, achieved by basing personnel decisions like promotion on seniority.
Affirmative Action
(Traditional Personnel Systems)
4/4
Usually in civil service systems, in order to be effective, gov't must acknowledge an inbalance in the percentage of minorities in its workforce and those qualified in a relevant labor force.
Stage 1
Evolution of Public Personnel Systems in Developing Countries
Dominant Value: Responsiveness
Dominant System: Gov't by elites
Pressure for Change: Political Party + Patronage
Stage 2
Evolution of Public Personnel Systems in Developing Countries
Dominant Value: Responsiveness
Dominant System: Patronage
Pressure for Change: Modernization + Democratization
Stage 3
Evolution of Public Personnel Systems in Developing Countries
Dominant Value: Efficiency + Individual Rights
Dominant System: Civil Service + Patronage
Pressure for Change: Responsiveness + effective gov't
Stage 4
Evolution of Public Personnel Systems in Developing Countries
Dominant Value: Responsiveness + Efficiency + Limited Gov't
Dominant System: Patronage + Civil service + collective bargaining + privitization
Pressure for Change: Dynamic equilibrium among pro- and anti-gov't values and system
Purpose of a budget
Limiting the total resources available to an agency and preventing expediture for activies or items not allowed by law.
Ceiling Budget
Type of budget used for control purposes
Line Item Budget
Classifies expenditures by type. Is useful for controlling types of expenditures as well as their total amount
Financial management
process of developing and using systems to ensure that funds are spent for the purpose for which the are intended
Audit
Last step in the budget cycle is the process of ensuring that funds were actually spent for the intended purpose and in the prescribed manner
Budget Process
1. Preparation
2. Proposal
3. Approval
4. Management
5. Evaluation
Techniques for Forecasting Human Resource Needs
1. Incrementalism (or decrementalism)
2. Collective opinion
3. Modeling or simulation
Incrementalism (or decrementalism)
Projects straight-line changes in personnel needs based on various factors that influence the quality and quantity of service delivery
Collective Opinion
First gathers information from a variety of sources and then reaching a group consensus about the interpretation of the data
Modeling or simulation
Requires math and computers. Developes a model that duplicates reality with respect to crucial environmental, organizational, or interpersonal factors affecting a particular agency goal.
Categorical forecasting
Type of Macro-level forecasting. It estimates further needs for separate occupational groups.
Cluster forecasting
Type of Macro-level forecasting. Groups those occupations with common skill requirements and those that are required for other positions to function.
Cutback Management
Agencies hire fewer permanent employees, freeze wages, or downsize by eliminating current employees since a large part of a budget goes to salary and benefit
Reduction-in-force
Involves across-the-board cuts, hiring freezes, layoff or attrition.
Attrition
Reduction in force by not filling vacant positions
Productivity
Concerns two sets of assessments, efficiency and effectiveness
Efficiency
Measured as a ratio of outputs to inputs. Identifying a performance outcome and identifying the resources used to produce that outcome
Effectiveness
Concern over the quality of the output measured against some standard
Responsiveness
Is the goal we set out to accomplish worthwhile in light of the other goals we might have chosen?
Job Analysis
The process of recording information about each employee's job.
Job Description
A written statement of the employee's responsibilities, duties, and qualifications
Qualification Standard
Specifies the minimum competencies and qualifications an employee needs to perform the position's duties at a satisfactorily level.
Job Classification
similar positions can be organized into an occupational series, along with other jobs of similar duties.
Grade Level
Jobs in different occupations, but of comparable difficulty
Improving Job Descriptions (5)
1. Tasks
2. Conditions
3. Standards
4. Competencies
5. Qualification
Tasks
What are the duties to the job?
Conditions
What makes the job easy or hard?
Standards
What objective performance levels can be set and measured?
Competencies
What knowledge, skill, or ability is required
Qualifications
What education, experience are needed
Results-oriented descriptions (RODs)
Provide clearer organizational expectations to employees; encourage supervisors and employees to recognize standards and competencies can be contingent upon conditions.
Job Evaluation
Used to determine the worth of the job or position
Point-factor method
Most prominent Job Evaluation Method because of objectivity, stability and reliability.
Rank-in-person Systems
Used in military and paramilitary systems. Employees are classified by occupation and level of responsibility
Market Models
Gov'ts combine point factor evaluation with the market-based models that are more flexible, more performance-based, and more aligned with contemporary job market conditions. Based upon internal and external equities
Internal Equity
Own point-factor classification system
External Equity
Realities of the local job market
Grade or Broad Banding
Arrange jobs into occupational classes and a few pay bands. Managers can adjust salaries within ranges without gaining approval
Merit Pay
Given to reward superior performance on the assumption that the performance will be repeated
Seniority Pay
Given on the assumption that seniority increases an employee's skills and thus value to the agency
Cost-of-Living Allowance (COLA)
Given to employees to maintain external pay equity in the face of a competitive labor market.
Civil Service Employee Pay
Established by the chief executive, authorized by the legislature. Increases based upon the basis of market comparisons, factors.
Collective Bargaining Process
Pay, benefits, and conditions are set by negotiations between agency mgt. and employee union representatives
Entitlement or mandated benefits
Those to which employees are entitled by law (social security, worker's compensation)
Discretionary benefits
Not mandated by law, but may be provided to attract or retain employees. Pensions, health insurance, paid leave
Social Security
Federally administered defined benefit plan to supplement employer sponsored discretional retirement systems
Workers' Compensation
Employer financed program that provides a percentage of lost wages and some medical and rehab benefits to employees with on the job injuries and cannot work
Unemployment Compensation
Provides a portion of regular wages to employees who have been separated without misconduct and who have actively been looking for work
Pensions
Retirement benefits
Vesting
Employee is entitled to that portion of accrued retirement benefits contributed by the employer; discourages turnover
Portability
Benefits earned in one agency may be transferred to another
Defined Benefit
Employees and employers contribute a portion of salary, but the benefits are predictable based on the number of years' service and salary level
Defined Contribution Plan
individual employees are able to make choices about how their tax-deferred contributions are invested
Disability Retirement
allows employees who are unable to work because of illness or injury and not normally able to retire to retire with benefits
ERISA
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
Regulates private sector pension systems because there is no law for it
COBRA
Comprehensive Budget Reconciliation Act.
Employees are entitled to have the continued health coverage for a limited period of time following retirement or termination
HIPAA
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
Department of Labor requires that employers and health insurers coordinate changes in benefit coverage resulting from personnel action and maintain confidentiality of employee records
Sick Leave
Provided so employees are not forced to work when they are sick. Unused days are computed for pension purposes.
Vacation Leave
Traditional benefit provided for holidays, personal days, and or discretionary days
FMLA
Family Medical Leave Act of 1993
Provides 12 wks/yr of unpaid leave to an employee to cope with family sickness, elder care, childbirth, or adoption.