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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Traditional Models of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
medical, legal and moral
Medical model
what the drugs physically do to your body
Legal model
the consequence you suffer because of drug abuse
moral model
bad values, sinning, etc
Underlying framework of course
attitudinal, interpersonal, political, social, economic
why course fits a public health model
-we are concerned about large populations
-problems are preventable
-large numbers of people are affected
-education part of solution
-patterns of drug use are communicable
Six basic assumptions
-drug definition is broad
-not just youth problem
-drugs themselves are not good or bad
-if drugs eliminated, problems not over
-no easy solution
-prevention starts with you and me
Primary Source
journal article, editorial review board--methods and data given in order to replicate the study
Secondary Source
summary of the primary--textbooks--can't replicate the study. Reorganization of info
Tertiary Source
audience not generally professional--newspaper article---very little info given. very summarized for the lay population
purpose of editorial review board
experts on subject can concurr that information is accurate
major problem with tertiary info
so filtered out for "dumb" people, you get very little information, no author, and too much advertisment
Correlation vs. Causation
just because two events are related does not imply one causes the other. corelation: describes the strength of the relationship or association btwn two variables
retrospective vs. prospective
looking back, only relying on reports vs. going forward
testimony vs. research
testimony--question of quality, often biased, sometimes paid for
four errors in research
-sampling--is it large enough
-data collection--are you asking questions people will answer
-interpretation- using figures properly, data support conclusion
-presentation-misleading people?
Cautions on web info
-no standards of quality
-cocktail party with too much info
-commercial site
-outdated info
epidemiology
the study of the dynamics and distribution of diseases and conditions in populations
the three components of epidemiological model
agent, person, enviroment--related because all interact--it isn't just one thing that aids in problem
agent
the drug itself: potency, purity, quantity, route of administration
person
internal factors (genetics), external factors(things you have control over..lack of sleep)
environment
religious, cultural, physical, legal
set
expectations
setting
enviroment
Abstinence
Absolute position, but no one is truly abstinent--doesn't usually include coffee, meds, food
Use
Experienced administration--moderate or occasional
approved med use
use as prescribed, report side effects
appropriate social use
culturally, religiously, personally
next steps before marginal abuse
moderate and frequent, moderate but habitual, use for kicks or thrills
marginal abuse
high potential to lead to abuse
-use for kicks, to get high, stress relief, spree use
abuse
no social norm, increasing frequency and amount--thereby increasing tolerance, denial, dependency, change motivation
drug actions depend on what variables
set, setting, dose, potency, tolerance, age, physcial condition, route of administration, site/mechanism, presence of other groups
fastest route of administration
inhaling--gets there faster, get dependent faster 90% dependent on smoking
ED 50, TD 50, LD 50
effective does, toxic dose and lethal dose (50 stands for 50%)
Effect of depressants
slow down the CNS (alcohol, barbituates, tranqs narcotics)
Opiate narcotics effects
reduce pain, produce sleep ( opium, morphine, heroin)
barbituate effects
induce sleep(librium, valium)
stimulants
speed up CNS(amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine)
amphetamines
increase alertness, decrease hunger
hallucinogens
alter perception
marijuana
mild relaxant, medicinal use
BAC .05-.08
motor functions impaired, more noisy, talkative, muscle control, judgement and ability to respond
BAC .09-.15
hearing, speech and balance
BAC .12
often when vomit
BAC .2
major blackouts of memory, unonciousness, reflexes impaire
BAC .3
difficult to awake, coma state, closer to death
BAC .35
surgical anethesia
BAC .40
lethal does for 50% of people
Six General Principles of Drugs
-drugs have been around for a long time
-drugs can be grouped into four general categories (depress, stim, hall, maryj)
-laws passed are not always for health and welfare
-governmental efforts often have unanticipated consequences
-natural forms tend to be safer than man made
-prohibition of any drug will lead to the importation of less bulky, more potent forms
Prohibition
1920-1933, changed drinking patterns, who what and where, temp decrease in cirrhosis of the liver, undermining of legal authority
Effect of labeling
1914 old lady usig tonic
1960 inner city black inject
1972 young urban mixing
types of stimulants
amphetamines, caffeine, cocaine, nicotine
state dependent learning
if using, remember something better if you're in the state that you learned it in
la guardia
1939 maryj use related to juvenile delinquency
india hemp
no known correlation with diseases
ledain
don't penalize for simple possession--decriminalize it
state of intoxication
interior state--central part of being human--hunger drive, sex drive
Effect of labeling
1914 old lady usig tonic
1960 inner city black inject
1972 young urban mixing
types of stimulants
amphetamines, caffeine, cocaine, nicotine
state dependent learning
if using, remember something better if you're in the state that you learned it in
la guardia
1939 maryj use related to juvenile delinquency
india hemp
no known correlation with diseases
ledain
don't penalize for simple possession--decriminalize it
state of intoxication
interior state--central part of being human--hunger drive, sex drive
historical figures that described non chemical state of intoxication
mohammed ali, emily dickenson,
Time
altered--speed up or slow down
perception
visual changes, touch, hearing, taste changes, smell
emotion
enter intoxications looking for serenity, tranquility, peace
unity
all things are related to one another in a way that makes sense
reality
intense conviction thathis is what life is really all about
ineffability
too overwhemling to be expressed in words
sense of longing
come out of it with an intense desire to return
why states important
because in reality we are all seeking the same types of states, just in different ways
ways to achieve non chem intox
fasting, vigils, twirling, water, sex, mature, exertion, music
Prevention aims
prevent harm and problems that arise from use--if you just try to control one area, it will move to another
primary prevention
promoting optimal health--widespread, universal
-specific answers for specific problems
secondary prevention
-prevent from getting worse early diagnosis, detection, slowing process--early intervention
tertiary prevention
reduce complications, rehb, getting back to previous level
enforcement approach
4 components- severity, certainty, quickness, community awareness
environment approach
availability, responsible hosts, mixed messages, alternatives
social norms approach
change how people think
important to note that can't use just one
because they all interact
formal controls
laws
informal controls
doing whats right