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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Infants require at least __ immunisations to pertussis to stop being at risk of severe disease.
Infants require at least 2 immunisations to pertussis to stop being at risk of severe disease.
What is the overall mortality of pertussis in the general population?
What is the overall mortality of pertussis in infants?
How is pertussis usually transmitted?
Through respiratory droplets.
What is the approximate incubation period of pertussis?
10 days.
When is pertussis most infectious?
In the first 2 weeks (it gradually decreases).
How long can the cough of pertussis last?
It can last up to 3 months.
What antibiotic options can be used to treat pertussis?
- Azithromycin.
- Clarithromycin.
- Erythromycin.
Treatment of pertussis reduces infectivity significantly if taken early enough. How early?
Within 21 days of general symptoms or 14 days of cough.
You should suspect cases of pertussis that remains infectious for approximately ___ after treatment commences.
You should suspect cases of pertussis that remains infectious for approximately 5 days after treatment commences.
What groups are recommended in having pertussis prophylaxis vaccination?
- Babies < 12 months regardless of vaccination.
- Child 12-24 months with less than 3 doses of pertussis vaccine.
- Any woman in their last month of pregnancy.
- Any child or adult who attend or works in childcare.
Infectious Disease notification involves....
Diagnosis (confirmed or provisional).

- Reviewed local public health unit (action taken if required).
- Collated and reviewed at the central office (action taken if required).
- Collated and reviewed at national level (action taken if required).
- International overview by WHO.
Why is it important for notification of infectious disease?
- Immediate action can be taken to prevent secondary transmission. e.g. meningococcal, measles.
- Monitor trends for planning and policy e.g. Ross River Virus, Hep C.
- Detect clusters or disease outbreaks. e.g. food-borne disease, hepatitis A.
- Knowledge of determinants.
- Review of data at local, state, national and international level.
What diseases require IMMEDIATE notification?
- Suspected invasive meningococcal disease.
- Suspected invasive haemophilus B infection.
- Dengue fever.
- Food/water borne in 2 or more cases.
- Haemolytis uraemic syndrome.
- Acute flaccid paralysis.
- Acute viral hepatitis.
- Pertussis.
- Suspected measles.
- Diptheria.
- Legionellellosis.
- Lyssavirus.
In infants, what non-specific signs may indicate meningococcal meningitis?
- Fever.
- Irritability.
- Poor feeding.
- Lethargy.
- Vomiting.
- Fontanelle may be full.
In older children, what symptoms would you look for in possible meningococcal meningitis?
- Headache.
- Photophobia.
What suggestive signs do you look for in meningococcal meningitis?
- Neck stiffness (unreliable).
- Kernig's sign.
- Purpuric/petechial rash suggestive of meningococcal septicaemia.
What particular sign should you look out for in complicated meningococcal septicaemia?
Purpuric/petechial rash.
What are the steps to take for severe systemic meningococcal infection?
- Immediate transfer of suspected cases to hospital.
- Administration of benzylpenicillin.
- Post-exposure prophylaxis to 'contacts'.
How many people are infected by Hepatitis C worlwide?
350 million infections worldwide.
How is Hepatitis C transmitted?
- Transfusion (rare now).
- Reusing injecting equipment.
- Non-sterile skin incision procedure.
- Sharps injuries.
- Mother to baby - approximately 4% of PCR RNA positive mothers will pass on HCV.
What percentage of HCV-infected people do not clear the virus and develop chronic Hepatitis C infection?
What percentage of HCV-infected people clear the virus and continue to carry Hepatitis C antibodies?
What percentage of Hepatitis C patients with chronic infection may never develop obvious signs or symptoms of illness?
On average, after 15 years, approximately 40-60% of people with Chronic hepatitis C infection will experience what?
Some symptoms and develop some liver damage/injury.
On average, after 20-30 years, approximately 7-16% of people with chronic Hepatitis C will develop what?
Approximately 2-5% of people with cirrhosis from hepatitis C will develop what?
Liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma.
What percentage of chronic Hepatitis C infected people are asymptomatic?
What signs, symptoms and investigation signs would you look out for with hepatitis C infection?
- Lethargy, malaise.
- Right upper abdominal pain.
- Liver enzymes fluctuations.
- HCV particles in blood.
How is hepatitis C infection treated?
Combination therapy: interferon and ribavirin.
A sustained response occurs in what percentage of Hepatitis C infected patients using PEG-IFN and RBV?
What is the incubation period of the varicella zoster virus in chicken pox?
10-21 days.
What prodromal symptoms typically occur with chicken pox?
- Fever.
- Lethargy.
- Anorexia.
What is the pathological course of the lesions associated with chicken pox?
Crops of papules that become vesicles and then crust over.
What location is chicken pox lesions usually located?
It can occur anywhere, but it is most common at:
- Scalp.
- Face.
- Trunk.
- Mouth.
- Conjunctiva.
How long does it usually take for chicken pox to fully crust over?
10 days.
During what periods of the illness is chicken pox infective?
2 days before rash and until all lesions have crusted over.
How long should children be excluded from school with the chicken pox?
At least 5 days after the first eruption.
At birth, what immunisations are required?
Hepatitis B only.
What immunisations are required at 2 months of age?
- DTPa IPV (combined).
- Hep B and Hib (combined).
- Pneumococcal.
What immunisations are required at 4 months of age?
- DTPa IPV (combined).
- Hep B and Hib (combined).
- Pneumococcal.
What immunisations are required at 6 months of age?
- DTPa IPV (combined).
- Pneumococcal.
What immunisations are required at 1 year of age?
- MMR.
- Hep B and Hib (combined).
- Meningococcal.
What immunisations are required at 18 months of age?
What immunisations are required at 4 years of age?
- DTPa IPV (combined).
- MMR.
How many times and when is the rotavirus vaccine administered?
Oral vaccine given in 2-3 doses to infants 6-32 weeks.
What is the efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine?
Is the rotavirus vaccine funded by medicare?
It is recommended, but not funded by medicare.
How many doses of Gardasil are required?
3 - Day 0, 2 months, 6 months.