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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Policies, procedures, and processes designed to recruit, train, and promote the men & women who manage gov't agencies.
Public Personnel Administration (PPA)
Training & staff development of public employees designed to improve job performance
Human Resources Development
A philosophical concept stressing individual equality in political, social, economic, and other relations; conceptual basis for "gov't by the people"
A law formally known as the Civil Service Act of 1883 (spons by Ohio Sen), est job-related competencies as the primary basis for filling nat'l govt jobs
Civil Service (Pendleton) Act - created US Civil Service Commission to oversee new "merit system"
A key administrative unit in the national gov't operating under presidential direction
Office of Personnel Management (OMP); responsible for managing nat'l gov't personnel system
Law designed to reinforce merit principles, protect whistle-blowers, delegate personnel authority to agencies, reward employees for measurable performance, and make it easier to discharge incompetent workers.
Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
Landmark legislation prohibiting discrimination by the private sector in both employment & housing.
1964 Civil Rights Act
Prohibited gender-based discrimination in pay for those engaged in the same type of work.
Equality Pay Act of 1963
Reflects the goal of many affirmative action programs to diversify the workplace to reflect the population demographics in the affected jurisdiction
A form of favoritism based on hiring family members or relatives.
An approach to compensation in personnel management founded on the concept of equal pay for equal contribution
Merit Pay
Part of the United States federal gov't civil service.
Competitive Service
The competitive service consists of all civil service positions in the executive branch EXCEPT (3):
1. positions specifically excepted from comp service by or under statute, 2. positions which appoinments are made by nomination for confirmation by Senate (unless Senate directs, and 3. positions in Senior Exec Service
Aka. Public service; Made up of civilian career public sector employees working for a gov't department or agency
U.S. Civil Service
A guarantee of access to benefits because of rights, or by agreement through law, usually in the form of gov't programs (aka. medicare, social security)
A category of outlays from budget authority provided in laws other than appropriations acts, for entitlements and budge authority for food stamps
Mandatory or Direct Spending (unemployment, medicare)
Refers to spending set on a yearly basis by decision of Congress and is part of fiscal policy. (Spending is optional)
Discretionary Spending
A federal agency within the leg branch of the US gov't.
Congressional Budget Office (CBO); created by Congressional Budget & Impoundment Control Act
Occurs when an entity (often a gov't) spends more money than it takes in. The opposite is a budget surplus
The economic term which describes the actions of a gov't in setting the level of public expenditure & how that expenditure is funded
Fiscal Policy
A financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e.g. tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements). *main income supply for fed. govt
This is defined as the market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time; how much a country buys & sells
Gross Domestic Product (GPD)
Money owed by any level of govt; either central govt, fed govt, municipal govt or local govt
Public Debt
The delegation of non-core operations or jobs from internal production within a business to an external entity (such as a subcontractor) that specializes in that operation. This is a business decision that is often made to lower costs or focus on competencies
Outsourcing *taking something and privatizing (schools, prisons)
The primary committee in Congress concerned with taxation and fiscal policy
House Ways & Means Committee
Orders placed, contracts awarded, services rendered, or other commitments made by gov't agencies during a given fiscal year that require expenditures of public funds during the same or some future period.
Budget Obligations
*Certain things the fed govt has to pay
Agency expenditures during a given fiscal period, fulfilling budget obligations incurred during the same or previous period.
Budget Outlays
In public finance, an earmark is a requirement that all or a portion of a certain score of revenue (such as a tax) must be devoted towards spending on a specific public expenditure. It bypasses the normal procedure where tax revenue is pooled in a general fund which is then distributed among separate spending programs.
What are then 7 Steps in the Standard-Form Policy Analysis?
1. Define the problem
2. Est criteria for problem resolution
3. Propose alternatives
4. Collect data relevant to the problem
5. Analyze the likely consequences of each alternative
6. Evaluate the trade-offs
7. Select the alternative strategy.
Policy actions such as subsidies or tax deductions that deliver widespread benefits to individuals or groups who often do not bear the costs.
Distributive Policies
An approach to intergovernmental relations under which federal agencies use regulations as opposed to grants to influence state & local gov'ts
Regulatory Policies
Protective regulations that either advantage certain professions or classes, or remove from the govt the power to regulate
Self-regulatory policies
Originally proposed by Woodrow Wilson in the 1880s, divides politics & policy making from policy implementation and public administration
Politics-administration dichotomy
Management technique designed to facilitate goal & priority setting, development of plans, resource allocation, monitoring progress toward goals, evaluating results, & generating and implementing improvments in performance.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Investigative arm of Congress that helps Congress oversee federal programs and operations to ensure accountability through a variety of activities including financial audits, program reviews, investigations, legal support, and policy/program analyses
Government Accountability Office (GAO)
Investigative arm of Congress that helps Congress oversee federal programs and operations to ensure accountability through a variety of activities including financial audits, program reviews, investigations, legal support, and policy/program analyses
Government Accountability Office (GAO)
Systematic examination of gov't actions, policies, or programs to determine their success or failure; used to gain knowledge of program impacts, establish accountability, and influence continuation or termination of govt activities
Program evaluation
Private organizations representing a portion (usually small) of the general adult population; they exist in order to pursue particular public policy objectives and seek to influence govt activity so as to achieve their objectives
Interest Groups
An interagency task force to reform the way the US federal govt works in the Clinton Administration
National Performance Review (NPR)
Requires agencies to develop plans for what they intend to accomplish, measure how well they are doing, make appropriate decisions based on the info they have gathered, and communicate info about their performance to Congress and to the public.
Government Performance and Results Act
*requires fed managers to plan & measure performance in new ways.
Announced in 2001, an aggressive strategy for improving the management of the Federal govt. Focuses on 5 areas of management weakness across govt where most progress can be made.
President's Management Agenda
5 Areas of management weakness across the govt where the most progress can be made.
1. Human Capital
2. Competitive Sourcing
3. Financial Performance
4. E-Gov
5. Budget and Performance Integration
The systematic process by which an agency involves its employees, as individuals and members of a group, in improving organizational effectiveness in the accomplishment of agency mission and goals
Performance Management
*private industry
The systematic process by which an agency involves its employees, as individuals and members of a group, in improving organizational effectiveness in the accomplishment of agency mission and goals
Performance Management
*private industry
A process used in management & particularly strategic management, in which orgs evaluate various aspects of their processes in relations to best practice, usually within their own sector.
Gov't programs that focus on performance in exchange for granting greater discretionary decision-making power to managers.
Results Oriented
An attribute to public policy decision making focused on the needs of citizens.
The body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies of gov't. Important body of the US law pertaining to the legal authority of public adminstrative entities to perform their duties, and to the limits necessary to control those agencies; created both by judicial decisions & by statute.
Administrative Law
Law on which all federal administrative procedures are based. *started admin law
Administrative Procedure Act of 1946
Strategy to reduce or remove regulations in a particular sector.
Decision by Congress or an administrative agency to strengthen or re-establish govt regulatory requirements.
Basis of US & other free-enterprise economic systems in which the means of production & distribution of goods and services are owned by private corporations or individuals, and govt's role in the economy is minimal (building roads)
Free-market Competition
Legal restriction promulgated by gov't admin agencies through rulemaking supported by a threat of sanction or a fine
Gov't Regulation
A situation in which a certain company or group of companies controls the production and distribution system of that market to exclude all other competitors
Monopolistic Practices (AT&T)
Delegated authority by Congress to enforce both executive & judicial authority in the application of gov't regulations.
Independent Regulatory Boards & Commissions
A gov't agency that regulates an area of human activity by codifying & enforcing rules & regulations, supervision or oversight, for the benefit of the public at large.
Regulatory Body (FAA)
Was the 1st US fed gov't action to limit monopolies. It provides: 'every contract, combo in form of trust, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, is declared illegal!' etc..
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
A cabinet-level executive agency responsible for the enforcement of fed law.
Justice Dept
Independent regulatory commission charged with enforcing antitrust acts, including the Sherman & Clayton Acts, to protect customers against unfair trade practices.
Federal Trade Commission(FTC)
Responsible for regulation of stocks,securities,& investments.
Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC)
Law on which all fed administration procedures are based
Administrative Procedure Act of 1946
*started Administrative Law
Social phenomenon of the past 40 years, particularly in the Western industrial nations, creating new technologies & vast new areas of research and education.
Knowledge Explosion (ex: space exploration, biogenetic engineering, mass communications, nuclear tech, NRG research)
Rapidly emerging patterns of change in communication, medical, & transportation technologies, among others, with significant implications both for the societal challenges confronting gov't & for the means and resources increasingly available to govt for conducting public affairs.
Technological Change
Practice of certain religious groups that adhere to strict beliefs and literal interpretation of a set of basic religious principles.
Social phenomenon of the period since WWII, affecting many nations, in which people who have been relatively poor have sought to increase their level of prosperity both as individuals and as groups
Revolution of Rising Expectations
Social end economic phenomenon emerging in many industrialized nations; characterized by a relative decline in importance of production, labor, & durable goods and an increase in importance knowledge, new technologies, provision of services, and leisure time
Post industrialism
*evolutionof the market system
An umbrella term for a complex series of economic, social, technological, & political changes seen as increasing interdependence and interaction between people & companies in disparate locations.
A corp/enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least 2 countries.
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) *of the 100 largest economies in the world, 51 are these
A trading bloc of 25 European countries, 12 of which have converted to a common currency, the Euro, to eliminate trade barriers among former nation-states.
European Union (EU)
Strategy to decentralize & deregulate the public sector by reductions-in-force, promoting greater flexibility in personnel decisions and increasing results-oriented incentives to reduce "overhead" costs.
Political condition in which gov't officials are perceived to lack the legal authority and right to make binding decisions for the people.
"Crisis of Legitimacy"
*Public Administration*