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173 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
health information system
the combination of vital and health stats from multiple sources used to derive info about health needs, resources, costs, use of services, outcomes...
count/frequency
the # of events/cases/inds that satisfy specified criteria
ratio
represents a relationship b/n #s of events/inds that satisfy different criteria (numerator doesn't have to be part of or relate to denominator)
proportion
a type of ratio in which the numerator is part of the denominator
percentage
a proportion multiplied by 100%
rate
a proportion that includes the specification of time a measure that expresses the rapidity, velocity, F of some event
incidence rate (IR)
the rapidity with which new cases/events occur
IR
# events/cases occurring in specified time period
-----------
population present in time period
X 10n
population present
usually defined as midyear pop. or in terms of person time (PT), usually person years
prevalence (P)
the amount of disease/disability already present in a pop. at that particular time.
P (prevalence) =
# cases present at time t
----------------------
pop. @ time t X10n
incidence is a ___________, prevalence is a ______________.
movie, snapshot
risk (R)=
the probability that an event will occur in a specified time period. often expressed as relative risk or risk ratio (RR), the likelihood that an exposed ind will dvp/contract a dx compared to someone who is not exposed.
RR=

(relative risk)
# new cases among those exposed
______________________________
# new cases among those not exposed
<1 Vs. >1
(range of possibilities, w/ 1 meaning there is no association b/n the factor and dvpt. of the dx)
<1 means the factor under study is protective
>1 = the factor is associated with the disease.
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with sources of disease:
environmental sanitation & pollution monitoring, drinking water treatment, vaccination, immunization, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, hazards, EDUCATION
secondary prevention:
involves detection and early treatment (SCREENING):
blood pressure, mammography, pap, blood cholesterol, intraocular pressure, spine, intections
tertiary prevention:
involves DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT & REHAB. to reduce residual disability:
chemo.
chiropractic
phys. ther.
surgery
detox programs
counselling
primary prevention is most __________.
COST EFFECTIVE, depending on construction and maintenance of infrastructure
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with sources of disease:
environmental sanitation & pollution monitoring, drinking water treatment, vaccination, immunization, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, hazards, EDUCATION
primary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
susceptibility, prepathogenesis
secondary prevention:
involves detection and early treatment (SCREENING):
blood pressure, mammography, pap, blood cholesterol, intraocular pressure, spine, intections
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with sources of disease:
environmental sanitation & pollution monitoring, drinking water treatment, vaccination, immunization, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, hazards, EDUCATION
secondary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
presymptomatic, pathogenesis,
(detection, early diagnosis, prompt treatment)
tertiary prevention assc. w/ ???
clinical disease, pathogenesis,(treatment and rehab)
tertiary prevention:
involves DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT & REHAB. to reduce residual disability:
chemo.
chiropractic
phys. ther.
surgery
detox programs
counselling
secondary prevention:
involves detection and early treatment (SCREENING):
blood pressure, mammography, pap, blood cholesterol, intraocular pressure, spine, intections
SCREENING is....
most cost effective only w/ very PREVALENT conditions and/or focused on those at high risk
tertiary prevention:
involves DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT & REHAB. to reduce residual disability:
chemo.
chiropractic
phys. ther.
surgery
detox programs
counselling
primary prevention is most __________.
COST EFFECTIVE, depending on construction and maintenance of infrastructure
landscape epidemiology
place diseases:
natural hazards-fire, flood, earthquake
climate-temperate, tropical, arid
altitude-skin cancer
vectors-moscos, fleas, ticks
primary prevention is most __________.
COST EFFECTIVE, depending on construction and maintenance of infrastructure
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with sources of disease:
environmental sanitation & pollution monitoring, drinking water treatment, vaccination, immunization, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, hazards, EDUCATION
natural NIDUS of infection
the vector spreading the disease: ticks & lyme's dx
primary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
susceptibility, prepathogenesis
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with sources of disease:
environmental sanitation & pollution monitoring, drinking water treatment, vaccination, immunization, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, hazards, EDUCATION
primary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
susceptibility, prepathogenesis
secondary prevention:
involves detection and early treatment (SCREENING):
blood pressure, mammography, pap, blood cholesterol, intraocular pressure, spine, intections
ecological fallacy
arises when factors compared are but indirectly associated. assumes all members of the group exhibit characteristics of the group at large.
stereotypes & biased sampling
secondary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
presymptomatic, pathogenesis,
(detection, early diagnosis, prompt treatment)
secondary prevention:
involves detection and early treatment (SCREENING):
blood pressure, mammography, pap, blood cholesterol, intraocular pressure, spine, intections
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with sources of disease:
environmental sanitation & pollution monitoring, drinking water treatment, vaccination, immunization, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, hazards, EDUCATION
secondary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
presymptomatic, pathogenesis,
(detection, early diagnosis, prompt treatment)
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with sources of disease:
environmental sanitation & pollution monitoring, drinking water treatment, vaccination, immunization, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, hazards, EDUCATION
secondary prevention:
involves detection and early treatment (SCREENING):
blood pressure, mammography, pap, blood cholesterol, intraocular pressure, spine, intections
tertiary prevention:
involves DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT & REHAB. to reduce residual disability:
chemo.
chiropractic
phys. ther.
surgery
detox programs
counselling
tertiary prevention assc. w/ ???
clinical disease, pathogenesis,(treatment and rehab)
tertiary prevention:
involves DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT & REHAB. to reduce residual disability:
chemo.
chiropractic
phys. ther.
surgery
detox programs
counselling
variable risk factor
is associated with the occurence, more likely to have been present before onset in those affected people than in non-affected people.
tertiary prevention assc. w/ ???
clinical disease, pathogenesis,(treatment and rehab)
SCREENING is....
most cost effective only w/ very PREVALENT conditions and/or focused on those at high risk
primary prevention is most __________.
COST EFFECTIVE, depending on construction and maintenance of infrastructure
SCREENING is....
most cost effective only w/ very PREVALENT conditions and/or focused on those at high risk
primary prevention is most __________.
COST EFFECTIVE, depending on construction and maintenance of infrastructure
secondary prevention:
involves detection and early treatment (SCREENING):
blood pressure, mammography, pap, blood cholesterol, intraocular pressure, spine, intections
tertiary prevention:
involves DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT & REHAB. to reduce residual disability:
chemo.
chiropractic
phys. ther.
surgery
detox programs
counselling
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with source.
avoids the dvpt of disease.
landscape epidemiology
place diseases:
natural hazards-fire, flood, earthquake
climate-temperate, tropical, arid
altitude-skin cancer
vectors-moscos, fleas, ticks
natural history of disease
SUSCEPTIBILITY STAGE
PRE SYMPTOMATic stage
symptoms are detectable
clinical disease phase
resolution
tertiary prevention:
involves DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT & REHAB. to reduce residual disability:
chemo.
chiropractic
phys. ther.
surgery
detox programs
counselling
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with sources of disease:
environmental sanitation & pollution monitoring, drinking water treatment, vaccination, immunization, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, hazards, EDUCATION
vital statistics
measurable characteristics- age, gender, ethnicity...
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with sources of disease:
environmental sanitation & pollution monitoring, drinking water treatment, vaccination, immunization, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, hazards, EDUCATION
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with sources of disease:
environmental sanitation & pollution monitoring, drinking water treatment, vaccination, immunization, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, hazards, EDUCATION
landscape epidemiology
place diseases:
natural hazards-fire, flood, earthquake
climate-temperate, tropical, arid
altitude-skin cancer
vectors-moscos, fleas, ticks
primary prevention is most __________.
COST EFFECTIVE, depending on construction and maintenance of infrastructure
primary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
susceptibility, prepathogenesis
natural NIDUS of infection
the vector spreading the disease: ticks & lyme's dx
secondary prevention:
involves detection and early treatment (SCREENING):
blood pressure, mammography, pap, blood cholesterol, intraocular pressure, spine, intections
primary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
susceptibility, prepathogenesis
primary prevention is most __________.
COST EFFECTIVE, depending on construction and maintenance of infrastructure
secondary prevention:
involves detection and early treatment (SCREENING):
blood pressure, mammography, pap, blood cholesterol, intraocular pressure, spine, intections
primary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
susceptibility, prepathogenesis
secondary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
presymptomatic, pathogenesis,
(detection, early diagnosis, prompt treatment)
secondary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
presymptomatic, pathogenesis,
(detection, early diagnosis, prompt treatment)
tertiary prevention assc. w/ ???
clinical disease, pathogenesis,(treatment and rehab)
primary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
susceptibility, prepathogenesis
tertiary prevention assc. w/ ???
clinical disease, pathogenesis,(treatment and rehab)
tertiary prevention:
involves DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT & REHAB. to reduce residual disability:
chemo.
chiropractic
phys. ther.
surgery
detox programs
counselling
natural NIDUS of infection
the vector spreading the disease: ticks & lyme's dx
secondary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
presymptomatic, pathogenesis,
(detection, early diagnosis, prompt treatment)
secondary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
presymptomatic, pathogenesis,
(detection, early diagnosis, prompt treatment)
SCREENING is....
most cost effective only w/ very PREVALENT conditions and/or focused on those at high risk
secondary prevention:
involves detection and early treatment (SCREENING):
blood pressure, mammography, pap, blood cholesterol, intraocular pressure, spine, intections
ecological fallacy
arises when factors compared are but indirectly associated. assumes all members of the group exhibit characteristics of the group at large.
stereotypes & biased sampling
SCREENING is....
most cost effective only w/ very PREVALENT conditions and/or focused on those at high risk
tertiary prevention:
involves DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT & REHAB. to reduce residual disability:
chemo.
chiropractic
phys. ther.
surgery
detox programs
counselling
variable risk factor
is associated with the occurence, more likely to have been present before onset in those affected people than in non-affected people.
tertiary prevention:
involves DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT & REHAB. to reduce residual disability:
chemo.
chiropractic
phys. ther.
surgery
detox programs
counselling
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with source.
avoids the dvpt of disease.
primary prevention is most __________.
COST EFFECTIVE, depending on construction and maintenance of infrastructure
primary prevention is most __________.
COST EFFECTIVE, depending on construction and maintenance of infrastructure
landscape epidemiology
place diseases:
natural hazards-fire, flood, earthquake
climate-temperate, tropical, arid
altitude-skin cancer
vectors-moscos, fleas, ticks
tertiary prevention assc. w/ ???
clinical disease, pathogenesis,(treatment and rehab)
tertiary prevention assc. w/ ???
clinical disease, pathogenesis,(treatment and rehab)
primary prevention is most __________.
COST EFFECTIVE, depending on construction and maintenance of infrastructure
ecological fallacy
arises when factors compared are but indirectly associated. assumes all members of the group exhibit characteristics of the group at large.
stereotypes & biased sampling
landscape epidemiology
place diseases:
natural hazards-fire, flood, earthquake
climate-temperate, tropical, arid
altitude-skin cancer
vectors-moscos, fleas, ticks
primary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
susceptibility, prepathogenesis
natural NIDUS of infection
the vector spreading the disease: ticks & lyme's dx
primary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
susceptibility, prepathogenesis
primary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
susceptibility, prepathogenesis
variable risk factor
is associated with the occurence, more likely to have been present before onset in those affected people than in non-affected people.
SCREENING is....
most cost effective only w/ very PREVALENT conditions and/or focused on those at high risk
natural history of disease
SUSCEPTIBILITY STAGE
PRE SYMPTOMATic stage
symptoms are detectable
clinical disease phase
resolution
SCREENING is....
most cost effective only w/ very PREVALENT conditions and/or focused on those at high risk
natural NIDUS of infection
the vector spreading the disease: ticks & lyme's dx
ecological fallacy
arises when factors compared are but indirectly associated. assumes all members of the group exhibit characteristics of the group at large.
stereotypes & biased sampling
landscape epidemiology
place diseases:
natural hazards-fire, flood, earthquake
climate-temperate, tropical, arid
altitude-skin cancer
vectors-moscos, fleas, ticks
landscape epidemiology
place diseases:
natural hazards-fire, flood, earthquake
climate-temperate, tropical, arid
altitude-skin cancer
vectors-moscos, fleas, ticks
ecological fallacy
arises when factors compared are but indirectly associated. assumes all members of the group exhibit characteristics of the group at large.
stereotypes & biased sampling
secondary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
presymptomatic, pathogenesis,
(detection, early diagnosis, prompt treatment)
secondary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
presymptomatic, pathogenesis,
(detection, early diagnosis, prompt treatment)
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with source.
avoids the dvpt of disease.
secondary prevention assc. w/ which dx stage?
presymptomatic, pathogenesis,
(detection, early diagnosis, prompt treatment)
vital statistics
measurable characteristics- age, gender, ethnicity...
tertiary prevention assc. w/ ???
clinical disease, pathogenesis,(treatment and rehab)
variable risk factor
is associated with the occurence, more likely to have been present before onset in those affected people than in non-affected people.
variable risk factor
is associated with the occurence, more likely to have been present before onset in those affected people than in non-affected people.
natural NIDUS of infection
the vector spreading the disease: ticks & lyme's dx
tertiary prevention assc. w/ ???
clinical disease, pathogenesis,(treatment and rehab)
tertiary prevention assc. w/ ???
clinical disease, pathogenesis,(treatment and rehab)
natural history of disease
SUSCEPTIBILITY STAGE
PRE SYMPTOMATic stage
symptoms are detectable
clinical disease phase
resolution
natural NIDUS of infection
the vector spreading the disease: ticks & lyme's dx
SCREENING is....
most cost effective only w/ very PREVALENT conditions and/or focused on those at high risk
SCREENING is....
most cost effective only w/ very PREVALENT conditions and/or focused on those at high risk
ecological fallacy
arises when factors compared are but indirectly associated. assumes all members of the group exhibit characteristics of the group at large.
stereotypes & biased sampling
SCREENING is....
most cost effective only w/ very PREVALENT conditions and/or focused on those at high risk
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with source.
avoids the dvpt of disease.
vital statistics
measurable characteristics- age, gender, ethnicity...
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with source.
avoids the dvpt of disease.
ecological fallacy
arises when factors compared are but indirectly associated. assumes all members of the group exhibit characteristics of the group at large.
stereotypes & biased sampling
natural history of disease
SUSCEPTIBILITY STAGE
PRE SYMPTOMATic stage
symptoms are detectable
clinical disease phase
resolution
variable risk factor
is associated with the occurence, more likely to have been present before onset in those affected people than in non-affected people.
landscape epidemiology
place diseases:
natural hazards-fire, flood, earthquake
climate-temperate, tropical, arid
altitude-skin cancer
vectors-moscos, fleas, ticks
vital statistics
measurable characteristics- age, gender, ethnicity...
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with source.
avoids the dvpt of disease.
variable risk factor
is associated with the occurence, more likely to have been present before onset in those affected people than in non-affected people.
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with source.
avoids the dvpt of disease.
landscape epidemiology
place diseases:
natural hazards-fire, flood, earthquake
climate-temperate, tropical, arid
altitude-skin cancer
vectors-moscos, fleas, ticks
natural history of disease
SUSCEPTIBILITY STAGE
PRE SYMPTOMATic stage
symptoms are detectable
clinical disease phase
resolution
natural history of disease
SUSCEPTIBILITY STAGE
PRE SYMPTOMATic stage
symptoms are detectable
clinical disease phase
resolution
natural NIDUS of infection
the vector spreading the disease: ticks & lyme's dx
natural history of disease
SUSCEPTIBILITY STAGE
PRE SYMPTOMATic stage
symptoms are detectable
clinical disease phase
resolution
landscape epidemiology
place diseases:
natural hazards-fire, flood, earthquake
climate-temperate, tropical, arid
altitude-skin cancer
vectors-moscos, fleas, ticks
vital statistics
measurable characteristics- age, gender, ethnicity...
natural NIDUS of infection
the vector spreading the disease: ticks & lyme's dx
ecological fallacy
arises when factors compared are but indirectly associated. assumes all members of the group exhibit characteristics of the group at large.
stereotypes & biased sampling
variable risk factor
is associated with the occurence, more likely to have been present before onset in those affected people than in non-affected people.
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with source.
avoids the dvpt of disease.
vital statistics
measurable characteristics- age, gender, ethnicity...
natural history of disease
SUSCEPTIBILITY STAGE
PRE SYMPTOMATic stage
symptoms are detectable
clinical disease phase
resolution
vital statistics
measurable characteristics- age, gender, ethnicity...
ecological fallacy
arises when factors compared are but indirectly associated. assumes all members of the group exhibit characteristics of the group at large.
stereotypes & biased sampling
natural NIDUS of infection
the vector spreading the disease: ticks & lyme's dx
variable risk factor
is associated with the occurence, more likely to have been present before onset in those affected people than in non-affected people.
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with source.
avoids the dvpt of disease.
vital statistics
measurable characteristics- age, gender, ethnicity...
ecological fallacy
arises when factors compared are but indirectly associated. assumes all members of the group exhibit characteristics of the group at large.
stereotypes & biased sampling
natural history of disease
SUSCEPTIBILITY STAGE
PRE SYMPTOMATic stage
symptoms are detectable
clinical disease phase
resolution
vital statistics
measurable characteristics- age, gender, ethnicity...
variable risk factor
is associated with the occurence, more likely to have been present before onset in those affected people than in non-affected people.
primary prevention
encompasses all practices that allow community to avoid contact with source.
avoids the dvpt of disease.
natural history of disease
SUSCEPTIBILITY STAGE
PRE SYMPTOMATic stage
symptoms are detectable
clinical disease phase
resolution
vital statistics
measurable characteristics- age, gender, ethnicity...
double blind study
neither subject nor observer knows assignment
cohort/incidence/longitudinal
a statistical age group used in a longitudonal study. followed for a period of time for the dvpt of the dx being studied.
data collected at beginning and conclusion of study
sources of cohort= special exposure or resource groups
measure of association- relative risk or risk ratio
case control study
comparing diseased and nondiseased with regard to how frequently the attribute is present
-data is collected once
-usu. only an option for studying rare conds.
-selection and sources of controls: population based
data presentation: 2X2 table, assumes one cause for each dx
measure of association: odds ratio
common source epidemic
point source; a single common exposure to a virus
propagative epidemic
direct; person to person
sensitive screen testing
the proportion of true positives that are labeled as positive
specificity of screen testing
the proportion of true negatives that are labeled as negative
final accurate diagnosis
2X2 table