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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
life-sustaining substances found in food
6 classes of nutrients
protein, carb, fat, vitamins, minerals, water
Builds and repairs body tissue, major component of enzymes, hormones, antibodies
major preferred source of food, provides fiber
fats, chief storage form of energy, insulation and protection for organs, provide fat-soluble vitamins
help promote and regulate processes, participate in energy release from food
enable enzymes to function, component of hormones, bone and nerve impulses
enables chemical reactions to occur, 60% of body weight. Cannot store or conserve it.
fat-soluble vitamins
vitamins A, D, E or K (all but B-C) can have a toxic amount. Need small amount, stored in fat
water-soluble vitamins
B-C. Too much, expelled in urine.
essential vitamins
have an RDA
essential amino acids
compounds that the body absolutely needs and it can't make for itself
guideline for almost all people of either gender
MyPyramid food groups
grains, veg, fruit, oils, milk, meat&beans
MyPyramid principles
activity, moderation, personalization, proportionality, variety, gradual improvement.
leader nutrients
If you obtain adequate amounts of leader nutrients from the foods you eat, you probably will obtain the other 30 nutrients as well. The ten leader nutrients are protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium and iron.
nutrient density
ratio of nutrient content (in grams) to the total energy content (in kilocalories or joules). Nutrient-dense food is opposite to energy-dense food (also called "empty calorie" food).
complete protein
contain all essential amino acids. Meat, milk, eggs.
incomplete protein
missing one or more essential amino acids. Beans etc. Can combine multiple (beans&rice) to achieve complete protein
carb loading
athlete's method to get as many carbs in the system as possible before an event. Difficult as athletes have a constant series of practice and events.
low blood sugar
increased blood acids
glycemic index
effect on blood sugar. White bread = 100. Hi GI immediately after exercise, otherwise lower can be better
hypercalciuric effect
elevated calcium level in the blood, possible result of high protein diet
essential fatty acids
Omega 3 and Omega 6. Fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components (generally all references are to humans) by any known chemical pathways; and therefore must be obtained from the diet. The term refers to those involved in biological processes, and not fatty acids which may just play a role as fuel.
necessity for dietary fat
cell membrane function, transport of fat-soluble vitamins, skin and hormones
Desirable <200 high >250. A lipid usually of dietary origin. Need every 3 years and use average of multiple readings if hi.
Cardiac risk factors
hypertensive, smoker elevated cholesterol sedentary SECONDARY FACTORS: obese diabetes family cardiac history <55 father or <65 mother
arrangement of protein and lipids necesssary at the cellular level
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
cholesterol with transport that attaches to arterial walls. Lousy cholesterol. Can be lowered by eating less fat, exercise, less saturated fat.
LDL breakpoints
Optimal <100 borderline >130 High >160 very high >190
more proteins than lipids, remove cholesterol from arteries to liver for repackaging and removal.
HDL breakpoints
< 40 increased cardiac risk. Aerobic exercise raiss. Slight alcohol consumption can raise.
Breakpoints for non-venal cholesterol test
> 160 or > 130 with high risk status … should be referred to physician
glycerol with 3 fatty acids attached. Most dietary fat
saturated fat
bonded with as much hydrogen as it can attach. Solid at room temperature, from meats and milk and tropical oils
hydrogenated fat
fat treated to break hydrogen bonds and make it solid at room temperature
trans-fatty acids
worst for raising cholesterol, partially hydrogenated
ergogenic aids
external influences which can positively affect physical or mental performance. People use all kinds of ingredients for this.
research results on vitamins
deficiency decreases performance but excess does not increase it.
common vitamin deficiencies
folate, Zinc B6, antioxidant, B6
common vitamin deficiencies, especially for woman exercisers
iron, zinc, b12
best way to get vitamins
from food
protect from free radical damage
antiioxidant vitamin list
beta carotene, C, E, sulfer, selenium
free radicals
o2 molecules with 1 electron. Some normal O2 molecules split into these and cause tissue damage
Vitamin which helps eliminate free radicals
E, though the required amount is generally within the normal dietary range and is very small.
substances in plants which are not in vitamin tablets and appear to have of the many healthful effects people take vitamins for
why iron is essential
for formation of hemoglobin which carries oxygen in the cells
benefits of minerals
heart rhythm, regulate muscle contractions
why not to take large iron doses
supplementation in non-anemic has no benefit
women and low iron
menstruation, weight loss, calorie restriction, higher physiological need
iron metabolism disorder, large amounts of iron in the liver
To improve iron intake
eat foods hi in C to aid absorption of iron, eat meat, eat vegetable proteins with meat
bone disorder, reduced bone density, especially women, especially with menstrual interruption
risk factors for osteoporosis
hormonal (lo estrogen), lo calcium, lo physical activity
Age by which most bone mass is built
athletic amenorrhea
menstruation stops from intense exercise, stress, energy drain, hormonal alterations. Increased fractures esp stress fractures. Can lead to osteoporosis
good menstruation
dairy for the lactose intolerant
yogurt, buttermilk, some cheeses, Lactaid, regular dairy in small amounts throughout the day
bacteria that encourage formation of good bacteria & aid digestion
can occur as little as 2% of body weight decrease from water. Fatigue and loss of coordination.
relying on thirst to judge dehydration
causes you to stop at 50-75% replacement of what was lost.
urine color
yellow can indicate dehydration. But diuretics cause urine to usually be clear.
fruit juice and pop during exercise
cramps, nausea, diarrhea, don't absorb it
right carb content for fluid during exercise
sugar for energy boost problem
< 1 hour pre exercise will still
low carb diet dangers
dehydration and muscle protein loss causes the weight loss. Don't learn to eat right and change lifestyle. Exercise is
salt tablets
draw salt out of the body into the stomach, worsening dehydration.