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152 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
anterior (ventral)
ante- (come before: as in antique)
front
None
posterior (dorsal)
back
Superior
Top, toward the head
inferior
Lower, away from the head
medial
toward the midline of the body
lateral
away from the midline of the body
proximal
toward the attached end of the limb, or origin of the structure, or toward the midline of the body
distal
distant, away frome the attached end of the limb, or origin of the structure, or toward the midline of the body
superficial
external, located closer to the body surface
deep
internal, located further beneth the body surface than the superficial
cervical
neck region
thoracic
chest (thorax)
lumbar
back between abdomen and pelvis
plantar
sole or bottom of foot
dorsal
top of foot and hands
palmar
palm
sagittal plane
(archer. Sagittarius is a bowman with an arrow)

imaginaary longitude dividing body into left and right halves
None
frontal plane
imaginatary longitude dividing body into front and back halves. Right angle to sagittal plane.
transverse plane
imaginary horizontal line dividing body into top and bottom halves. Aka horizontal plane.
arthro
joint
bi
two
bracium
arm
cardio-
heart
cephalo
head
chondro
(grain, orzo)
cartilage
None
costo
rib
dermo
skin
emo, hemat
blood
ilio
wide, upper part of pelvic bone
myo
muscle
os, osteo
bone
pulmo
lung
thoraco
chest (thorax)
tri
three
What blood does
in, out, protects, temp, clots. Distributes O2 and nutrients, carries CO2 and metabolic wastes out, protects against disease, helps regulate temp, clots to attempt to prevent serious blood loss. Blood is the only fluid tissue.
components of blood
formed elements of living cells (white/red cells and platelets).

Plasma, the non-living liquid portion, 92% water, principally proteins.
None
% of body weight blood represents
8
how much blood you have, female
4-5l
how much blood you have, male
5-6l
why arteries different from veins
stronger, and their muscular walls help propel blood
why veins are different from arteries
contain valves to prevent blood from flowing backward.
arterioles
arteries branch into these to deliver blood to capillaries
capillaries
microscopic, extensive network to carry blood thru distal tissues. Critical exchange of nutrients and waste.
venules
beginning of venous structure, continuation of capillaries and join together to form veins
common size of heart
fist
site of heart
left of center behind sternum and lungs
superior vena cava
drains blood from above the heart into right atrium
inferior vena cava
drains blood from below the heart into right atrium
function of atrium
primer pump. Blood accumulates there during contraction. Upon relaxation, blood flows on into ventricle. Right ventrical pumps to lungs. Left ventricle pumps to body.
pulmonary trunk
what right ventricle pumps into. Goes from there into right and left pulmonary arteries.
pulmonary arteries
transport blood to lungs, where co2 released and o2 acquired
pulmonary veins
4 veins from lungs back to heart, goes to left atrium.
left ventricle
gets blood from left atrium coming from lungs. During contraction pumps to ascending aorta.
ascending aorta
distributes blood from heart to rest of the body (except lungs)
3 functions of respiratory system
Supplies O2, eliminates CO2, helps regulate pH of the body
None
Respiratory system contents
mouth to lungs. Mouth, throat, trachea, bronchi
None
respiration
exchange of gasses O2, CO2, N between the atmosphere and blood within capillaries in lungs
internal respiration
exchange of gasses between blood and cells
None
cellular respiration
utilization of O2 and prduction of CO2 by metabolic activity in the cells
function of nose
warms air, filters thru membrane covered with cilia (small hairs) that filter out small particles.
None
pharynx (throat)
just posterior to nasal and oral cavaties, passes air and food, resonates speech sounds.
mouth breathing
doesn’t get filtered to the same extent as nose breathing. Predominates during vigorous exercise.
to find larnyx
touch your adams' apple
larnyx
organ of voice, the enlarged upper (proximal) end of trachea (windpipe). Passes air to/from lungs via pharynx.
trachea
windpipe. 4.5 inch tube kept open by C-shaped cartilege series like wire rings in a vacuum cleaner hose.
bottom of trachea
about 5th thoracic vertebra (T5), where it divides into right ad left primary bronchi.
None
primary bronchus
right and left, each enters a lung and divides into 5 secondary bronchi, one for each of the lobes of lung
number of lobes of the lung
5
tertiary bronchi
3rd branching of bronchi, dividing over and over
terminal bronchioles
tiny bronchi with microscopic branches
respirator bronchioles
microscopic bronchi, subdivide into alveolar ducts (alveoli)
alveoli
(little hollows)

where the actual exchange of gases with the blood is done.
None
Number of alveoli
300 million
surface area of alveoli
750 square feet (70 square meters)
bronchial tree
description of what bronchial divisions look like
shape of lungs
cone
location of lungs
thoracic cavity
number of lobes, right lung
3
number of lobes, left lung
2
diaphragm
muscle that is the floor of the thoracic cavity, contracts on inhale (inspiration), relaxes to allow expiration
mediastinum
Middle Space (lungs)

space that separates the lungs and contains the heart, esophagus (throat to stomach), and part of the trachea,
None
nervous system function
control enter and communications. Carries all comands to contract muscles.
2 parts of nervous system
central and peripheral
None
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord. Totally enclosed within bony structures. Integrates all the info from peripheral nervous syem (PNS) and formulates appropriate responses
function of skull
protect the brain
function of vertebral canal
protect the spinal cord
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves that connect the CNS to to the extremities (limbs)
number of pairs of cranial nerves
12
number of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves connecting to brain stem instead of brain
10
number of spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord
31
nuber of cervical pairs of spinal nerves
8
nuber of thoracic pairs of spinal nerves
12
number of lumbar and sacral pairs of spinal nerves
5
number of coxxygal pair of spinal nerves
1
% of body weight blood represents
8
how much blood you have, female
4-5l
how much blood you have, male
5-6l
why arteries different from veins
stronger, and their muscular walls help propel blood
why veins are different from arteries
contain valves to prevent blood from flowing backward.
arterioles
arteries branch into these to deliver blood to capillaries
capillaries
microscopic, extensive network to carry blood thru distal tissues. Critical exchange of nutrients and waste.
venules
beginning of venous structure, continuation of capillaries and join together to form veins
common size of heart
fist
site of heart
left of center behind sternum and lungs
superior vena cava
drains blood from above the heart into right atrium
inferior vena cava
drains blood from below the heart into right atrium
function of atrium
primer pump. Blood accumulates there during contraction. Upon relaxation, blood flows on into ventricle. Right ventrical pumps to lungs. Left ventricle pumps to body.
pulmonary trunk
what right ventricle pumps into. Goes from there into right and left pulmonary arteries.
pulmonary arteries
transport blood to lungs, where co2 released and o2 acquired
pulmonary veins
4 veins from lungs back to heart, goes to left atrium.
left ventricle
gets blood from left atrium coming from lungs. During contraction pumps to ascending aorta.
ascending aorta
distributes blood from heart to rest of the body (except lungs)
3 functions of respiratory system
Supplies O2, eliinates CO2, helps regulate pH of the body
Respiratory system contents
mouth to lungs. Mouth, throat, trachea, bronchi
None
respiration
exchange of gasses O2, CO2, N between the atmosphere and blood within capillaries in lungs
internal respiration
exehcnage of gasses between blood and cells
cellular respiration
utilization of O2 and prduction of CO2 by metabolic activity in the cells
function of nose
warms air, filters thru membrane covered with cilia (small hairs) that filter out small particles.
None
pharynx (throat)
just posterior to nasal and oral cavaties, passes air and food, resonates speech sounds.
mouth breathing
doesn’t get filtered to the same extent as nose breathing. Predominates during vigorous exercise.
to find larnyx
touch your adams' apple
larnyx
organ of voice, the enlarged upper (proximal) end of trachea (windpipe). Passes air to/from lungs via pharynx.
trachea
windpipe. 4.5 inch tube kept open by C-shaped cartilege series like wire rings in a vacuum cleaner hose.
bottom of trachea
about 5th thoracic vertebra (T5), where it divides into right ad left primary bronchi.
None
primary bronchus
right and left, each enters a lung and divides into 5 secondary bronchi, one for each of the lobes of lung
number of lobes of the lung
5
tertiary bronchi
3rd branching of bronchi, dividing over and over
terminal bronchioles
tiny bronchi with microscopic branches
respirator bronchioles
microscopic bronchi, subdivide into alveolar ducts (alveoli)
alveoli
where the actual exchange of gases with the blood is done.
Number of alveoli
300 million
surface area of alveoli
750 square feet (70 square meters)
bronchial tree
description of what bronchial divisions look like
shape of lungs
cone
location of lungs
thoracic cavity
number of lobes, right lung
3
number of lobes, left lung
2
diaphragm
muscle that is the floor of the thoracic cavity, contracts on inhale (inspiration), relaxes to allow expiration
mediastinum
space that separates the lungs and contains the heart, esophagus (throat to stomach), and part of the trachea,
nervous system function
control enter and communications. Carries all comands to contract muscles.
2 parts of nervous system
centra and peripheral
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord. Totally enclosed within bony structures. Integrates all the info from peripheral nervous syem (PNS) and formulates appropriate responses
function of skull
protect the brain
function of vertebral canal
protect the spinal cord
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves that connect the CNS to to the extremities (limbs)
number of pairs of cranial nerves
12
number of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves connecting to brain stem instead of brain
10
number of spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord
31
number of cervical pairs of spinal nerves
8
None
nuber of thoracic pairs of spinal nerves
12
number of lumbar and sacral pairs of spinal nerves
5
number of coxxygal pair of spinal nerves
1