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113 Cards in this Set

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cardiac output
The volume of blood that flows through each ventricle in 1 minutes. heart rate X stroke volume
heart rate
number of times your heart beats in one minute
stroke volume
amount of blood pumped from each ventricle each time the heart beats. Increases with aerobic conditioning.
ejection fraction
percentage of total volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastoe that is subsequently ejected during contraction. Ideal 50% at rest. Can be 100% during exercise.
oxygen extraction
extracting oxygen from the hemoglobin in the capillaries of the muscles, used by the exercising muscle cells
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
the body's energy source. quickness and efficiency of a muscle's production of ATP determines amout of work it can do before it fatigues.
aerobic system
with oxygen. dominent when adequate O2 in the cell to meet energy production needs, example when at rest.
anaerobic glycolysis
without o2, glucose breakdown in the cell but outside the mitochondria. Generates force quickly (example: lifting heavy weight). Only structural muscle cells can do this. Organ cells can't, so organs need constant O2 to live.
creatine phosphate system
a second source of anearobic ATP, a molecule that can be quickly broken apart to produce ATP. Only enough stored for 10 seconds of max effort in a trained athlete
most cells contain them, the site of aerobic energy (ATP) production. More mitochondria per cell, more aerobic energy production.
insufficient oxygen supply to the heart muscle, during rest or exercise
angina pectoris
sensation of pain and/or pressure in the chest resulting from ischemia
anaerobic threshold
exercise intensity at which adequate oxygen is not available. Upper limit of sustainable aerobic exercise, generally 50-85% maximum effort.
storage from of glucose in the muscles and liver
creatine phosphate and ATP
heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water 1 degree centegrade
breating faster than is necessary at a given pace. Futile because it does not increase O2 absorption
start and carry out the chemical reactions that produce ATP aerobically and anaerobicially. Separate enzymes for metabolising carbs (aerobically separate enzymes from anaerobically) and fat .
maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max)
maximal O2 consumption. cardiac max output X O2 extraction max. Typically divided by weight in kilograms to produce a VO2 number.
metabolic equivalent (MET)
resting Vo2 of 3.5 mL/kg/minute. Volleyball 3 METs. Aerobics 6-10.
Increase in diamater of artery (as arteries leading to muscles do during exercise)
Decrease in diamater of artery (as arteries leading to abdomen do during exercise)
systolic blood pressure
Amount of pressure generated by the contraction of the left ventricle (systole). Increases during exercise.
diastolic blood pressure
Amount of pressure left in the system when the heart muscle relaxes. Same, or drops, during exercise as the resistance decreases due to vasodilation.
overload principle
Making a system work harder than it is accustomed to working.
venous return
Amount of blood returned to the heart, increases with exercise.
Rules for specificity of training
Rythmic, continuous use of large muscles.

Maxiumum effectiveness, such as for aerobic exercise rhythmic, continuous, involving the large muscle groups, especially hip and knee flexors and extensors. Combining upper and lower extremity movements is even better.
motor neurons
Muscle contraction originates as nerve impulses to the muscle fiber through the motor neurons. Neurons are the main type of nervous tissue cell in brain and spinal cord.
Trasmitter for a nerve impulse
neurotransmitter which chemicaly transmits nerve impulse to muscle fibers.
neuromuscular junction
Junction at which a motor neuron and a myofibril meet
Strands of protein running the length of each muscle fiber.
contractile proteins in muscle, overlaps a portion of one end of the myosin and extends through the sarcomere boundary into the adjacent sarcmere, overlapping there.
contractile proteins in muscle, in the middle of each sarcomere
contractile proteins
Proteins responsible for muscle contraction
Repeating units along the length of a muscle cell
Membrane surrounding the mitochondria
gelatin-like tissue
sarcoplasmic reticulum
stores and releases calcium in a muscle. Calcium breaks the linkages after a contraction to break the bond and release the contraction.
sliding filament theory
tiny projections from the myosin attach to the miosin if ATP and nervous impulse are present. Myosin swivels toward the center of the sarcomere, shortening everything and makes the muscle fiber shorten, contracting the muscle.
bridge across which impulses flow
concentric contraction
Positive contraction, shortens the muscle
eccentric contraction
Negative contraction, lengthens the muscle. Individual fibers contract, but the external resistance to the muscle's action is greater than the force generated, so the muscle lengthens.
isometric contraction
Individual fibers contract, but the muscle as a whole stays the same
motor unit
a single nerve and all the muscle fibers it stimulates. 5-10 fibers in an eye-blink muscle. 500-1000 in legs muscles. Made up of all fast-twitch or all slow-twitch fibers. All contract together and with maximum force. To generate more force, more muscle units are recruited.
adaptation to strength training -- increase in muscle size. Increased proteins responsible for force generation. Men hypetrophy > women at same load due to testosterone which helps generate more proteins. Men do better with low rep (6-10)- hi intensity, women better with hi-rep (15-20) low intensity. Low intsity hi rep not of much value in most males.
nervous inhibition
Beliving that you cannot lift a weight causes lack of confidence which physiologically reduces our ability to lift
Golgi tendon organ
Part of a muscle, resists using 100% of muscle capacity, to prevent injury. Can be overridden in an emergency to get super strength, or by building super confidence, or by exercising which raises the threshold of initiation of the Golgi organ.
4 limits to flexibility
Elastic limits of tendons and ligaments, elasticity limit of muscle tissue, bone-joint structure, the skin.
muscle spindles
Fibers in muscle tissues which protect against too much stress. Bouncing stretches are not good. Slow stretch to induce tightness and hold 10-15 sec. 4 reps.
muscular strength
Maximum amount of force a muscle/muscle group can develop during a single contraction
muscular endurance
number of repeated contractions a muscle/muscle group can perform againt a resistance without fatiguing, or the length of time a contraction can be held without fatigue
amount of movement that can be acomplished at a joint (articulation). Range of motion about a joint.
total body weight
fat-free weight (muscle, bones, organs etc) plus fat
storage form of fat
Fit body-fat percentage, female
Fit body-fat percentage, male
3 kinds of blood vessels
arteries, capillaries, veins
carry blood with fresh O2 away from the heart
narrow, thin walled vessels across which the exchange of gases, nutrients, and cellular waste products occurs betweent he blood and the cells of the body
network of vessels through which the blood, drained of much O2 but high in CO2, flows back to the heart
3 biomechanical pathways to produce ATP
aerobic, anaerobic, creatine phosphate systems
myocardial infarction
heart attack, the area of the heart muscle ("myocardium") behind the blockage w/o O2.
In the brain, the result of ischemia, absence of O2 due to blockage
2 of the 3 substances in cells that produce most ATP
fat, carbohydrate. Protein possible but not preferred
calories per minute produced at rest aerobiclaly
primary source of anaerobic ATP production is
glucose, carried in the blood and stored in the muscles and liver as glycogen
calories of fat per gram, fat
calories of fat per gram, protein and carbs (glucose)
lactic acid
byproduct of anaerobic ATP production, possibly responsible for muscle burn, limits repeated contraction of muscle
Formula for determined VO2 equivalent of MET value
VO2 X 3.5
Blood pressure formula
systolic (during pump) / diastolic (at rest) pressure expressed in millimeters of pressure
Pulse pressure
the driving force for blood flow. Systolic minus diastolic
Cardiac output factors of training
Decreased heart rate, increased stroke volume, increased maximum cardiac output
Oxygen extraction factors of training
Incrased capillary density, increased number of mitochondria, increeased activity of mitochondrial (aerobic) enzymes
Muscle factors of training
Use more fat, store more glycogen, produce less lactic acid

Body uses more fatty acids for ATP production, body stores more glycogen in trained muscles, produces less lactic acid, leading to more endurance.
4 rules for maximizing overload in aerobic training
Correct type of exercise at the proper intensity for sufficient duration with adequate frequency. TIDF. Type, Intensity, Duration, Frequency
muscle pump
rhythmic squeezing action of the large muscles against the veins within them; leads to a significant increase in venous return, which is required for proper aerobic conditioning.
optimum exercise efficiency for fitness improvement
50-80% max O2 consumption 60-90% max heart rate. But untrained individuals will begin improvement at 40% O2 50% HR
talk test
Estimator of proper target heart rate. Should be able to carry on a conversation. Otherwise hyperventilation has set in and you're aneaerobic and will fatigue rapidly and possibly experience burning in the exercising muscles.
Borg's rating of perceived exertion
12-15 on the 6-to-20 scale or 3-5 on a scale of 1-10. Somewhat strong to hard.
Minimum duration of exercise
10 minutes, and a total of 20 minutes over the course of a day. 3x10 same benefit as 1x30. More intensity can have less duration. Jogging 2X walking.
Surgeon General's recommendation on exercise duration
30 minutes most days of the week
performance interval training
Full effort and brief rest alternating, precisely timed, to increase tolerance for buildup of lactic acid. Top end athletes.
endurance interval training
Cycling up to the aenerobic threshold and back down, no set durations necessary.
Minimum days per week to exercise
3, though more days speeds up increase.
Benefits of warmup
Increased blood through muscles heats them up, so less chance of soft tissue injury. Also allows circullation to muscles to gradually ramp up.
Benefits of cool down
Allows blood flow to return to at-rest so blood shunt reverses easily.
Best exercise to warm up and cool down with
Much slower paced version of the same exercise you are going to be doing.
Benefits of exercise
Burn, composition, less app, less insulin, strength.

Burn more calories, better body composition, reduced appetite possibly, strengthen skeletal system (can reduce risk for getting, or stop development of osterporposis). Reduces insulin needed, shown to eliminte need for diabetic meds when used along with a healthy diet. Diet is important and need training from dr. re monitoring blood sugar before, during, after exercise.
4 risk factors for coronary artery disease
Sedentary, hypertensive, smoking, hi cholesterol

lack of aerobic exercise, hypertension (high BP) , smoking, high cholersterol. Exercise can help with each of these.
"good" cholersterol. LDL = Lousy cholesterol.
Role of sweat
Evaporation cools the skin to radiate off excess body heat. Does not work as well in high humidity.
Fluid replenishment for exercise
7-10 oz every 10-20 minutes. Cooler water empties from the stomach faster into the intestines where it can be absorbed.
Fluid replacement plan
20 oz before exercise. 20 oz after exercise for every pound of body weight lost.
Types of muscle cells
Cardiac (only type that can grade its contraction), smooth (artery and intestine walls, allow blood to pass easily), skeletal (only muscles under voluntary control, they move the skeleton).
Fast and slow twitch muscle fibers
Fast are for aerobic, slow are for anaerobic. Different people have different amounts in different muscles. Some people are built for speed, some for endurance. Individual gain from exercise varies quite a bit. Can't grow a different distribution of fibers but can increase oxidative efficiency of them.
Length-tension relationship of muscle
Max force is when muscle begins contraction from 1.2 x resting length. Thus good to stretch the muscle out slightly before starting a fast motion.
Repetition maximum. 6 RM is trying to do 6 reps.
Connective tissue which pads between the bones that meet at a joint
Connective tissue which connect bones to bones at a joint
Connective tissue which connects skeletal muscles to bones, transmit force of musclar contraction to the bones. Connected to tendouous tissue which holds the muscle together.
Gains from muscle development
Hypertrophy. Strength. More muscle units used.

Muscle tissue hypertrophies, connective tisue strengthens, totally inactive motor units get exercised. More strength in as little as 2 weeks, mostly from using inactive muscle fibers, plus the brain gets better at coordinating recruitment of additional motor units.
Isometric strength training
Same-measure. Max effort produced to not move anything. Like pressing on a wall. Increases strength only at the joint angle where exertion occurs.
Isotonic strength training
Same-tone (same-tension). Constant weight through the whole lift, requiring differerent amounts of force due to the biomechanics of the structure
Isokinetic training
Same-speed. Max force throught the entire range of movement.
Cause of immediate soreness
lactic acid buildup
cause of delayed onset soreness (1-3 day)
tears especialy during negative effort
cause of prolonged-effort fatigue
glycogen depletion in the exercising muscles, so muscles cannot contract and muscles cannot keep up the intensity.
High altitude training rules
Adjust to O2 level. 2 weeks at 8,000 feet, 4-5 weeks at 12,000 feet. Report any weakness, dizzyness, headaches, insomnia, irritability
Hot environment training rules
Plenty of fluids, lightweight light colored clothing, dress to evaporate, use sunscren
Cold environment training rules
Kidnes increase urine production in cold, so plenty of fluids. Watch post-exercise body heat loss. Wear a hat, especially at less, to lessen heat loss. Dress to evaporate.
5 components of optimum fitness
cardio, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, body composition change (less fat)