Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/62

Click to flip

62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Splenectomy is sometimes used as a treatment for what type of leukemia?
Hairy cell leukemia
What is the purpose for cranial irradiation?
The purpose of cranial irradiation is to keep the cancer from spreading to the nervous system.
As defined in the EEOC Uniform Guidelines, unfairness is a problem when?
Groups have consistently different scores ont he predictor.
When is a test unfair?
A test is unfair when it has a similar validity coefficient for members of two or more groups and members of the groups have similar criterion performance, but members of one group consistently score lower on the predictor than members of the others groups.
Example of differential validity?
The predictor has significantly different validity coefficients for different groups.
In the context of expectany theory, valence refers to?
Subjective worth of outcomes.
Expectany theory distinguishes between three types of beliefs that contribute to motivation. What are they?
Expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.
In the context of expectancy theory, what does valence refers to?
Valence refers to the value of available outcomes to the individual.
What are Piaget stages of change?
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete
Formal Operations
What is involved in Sensorimotor?
Object permanence is one of the most important accomplishments of an infant in this stage. Understanding that, objects and events exist even when they can not be seen.

Birth - 2
What is involved in preoperational?
symbolic functioning occurs at this stage. Defined as the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present. Intuitive thought also occurs at this stage. This substage involves centration and the use of primitive reasoning.

2 to 7
What is involved in concrete?
Conservation, the idea that an amount stays the same regardless of the change in containers, is a characteristic that is progressively learnt throughout this stage.
Another important characteristic of this stage is classification or being able to devide things into sets.

7-11
What is involved in formal operational?
Characteristics involved in this stage are egocentrism. This has two parts. First an imaginery audience, the adolescent believes others are as preoccupied with them as they are. Secondly personal fable, the adolescence sense of personal uniqueness and indestructibility.

11-15
What is involved in classical conditioning?
CC is associated iwth Pavlov and involves pairing aneutrl stimulus with a stimulus that naturally produces the target response so that, eventually, the neutral (conditioned) stimulus also produces the target response.
What is positive punishment?
Positive punishment involves applying a stimulus following a behavior to reduce or eliminate that behavior.


Example: Verbal reprimands (e.g. yelling "stop" after an undesirable behavior)
What type of punishment is response cost?
Negative punishment
What type or reinformcement is premack principle?
Positive reinforcement
Time -out is hat type of punishment?
Negative punishment
What is involved in classical conditioning?
US - Unconditioned Stimulus
CS - Conditioned Stimulus
What is an unconditioned stimulus?
A stimulus that naturally elicit the target response
What is an conditioned stimulus?
Neutral stimulus that produce the target response only after conditioning
What happens during forward conditioning
CS (tone) precedes (go ahead) the US (meat powder)
What happens during backward conditioning?
The US (meat powder) precedes (go ahead) the CS (Tone)
What is stimulus generalization?
When the subject responds not only to the CS but also to stimuli that are similar to the CS
The difference between positive punishment and negative punishment?
Positive punishment you introduce something after a undesirable behavior (yelling stop after an inappropriate behavior) and negative punishment (meaning taking something away after an undesirable behavior)
A distribution of scores has a mean of 110 and a standard deviation of 10. Adding 12 points to each score int he distribution will?
Adding or subtracting a constant to every score in a distribution changes the measures of central tendency (mean, median and mode) but not the measures of variability (standard deviation).
What is a pooled varience?
A pooled variance is used when it can be assumed that the variances of the populations represented by the samples are the same ven though the sample variances differ
What is a standard score?
A standard score is a norm-referenced score that indicates an examinee's performance of standard deviation units (a z score of 1.0 indicates a raw score that is one SD abouve the mean of the norm group.
What types of scores are standard scores?
WAIS IQ Score
z scores
t scores
What is the definition of incremental validity?
The degree to which it will increase decision-making accuracy
The selection ration, base rate, and validity coefficient are used to estimate a test's?
Incremental validity
Bem's theory states what?
Attitudes are inferred from our behaviors
Self-verification theory (Swann, Pelham and Krull, 1989) predicts what?
Conclude that people prefer feedback that is consistent with their own self-beliefs.
Children with hearing impairments, ADHD, reading disorders, and several other problems share several outcomes on the WISC-III
According to A. Kaufman, children with hearing impairments and several other problems typically obtain scores onthe perceptual organization index that are 10 points higher than scores onthe processing speed and freedom from distractibility indices.
Is cognitive flexibility an area that is measured on the WISC-III
No
What cognitive factor are older adults have the lease variability?
Crystallized Intelligence
What cognitive factors are older adults are significantly more variable in?
Memory, reaction time and fluid intelligence
If a psychologist is completing a custody evaluation and gets permission from both parents to complete the evaluation with the child, but later one parent withdraws his or her consent. What should you do?
Contact the court to determine the appropriate course of action. When ever one parent withdraws their consent on a custody evaluation, a psychologist should seek guidance from the courts.
Functional brain imaging techniques to study ADHD has linked its symptoms to lower-than-normal levels of metabolic activity in what part of the brain?
Prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia
What functions are involved in the prefrontal cortex?
Involved in executive cognitive functions (planning, decision making, attention)
What functions are involved in the basal ganglia?
The regulation of movement.
Abnormalities in both the prefrontal cortex and baal ganglia has been linked with what?
ADHD
Recent research has shown that single-session Psychological Debriefing (PD)is ___________ for preventing PTSD and may actually increase the risk for PTSD symptoms
Not effective. (Note: There is some evidence that multiple-session PD may be ineffective as well)
Who is the first psychoajnalyst who is generally identified as the first to formally adapt and apply psychoanalytic principles to the understanding of the family?
Nathan Ackerman
Carl Whitaker applied ___________ principles to family therapy?
Eperiential (humanistic)
Walter Kempler applied _________principles to family therapy?
Gestalt therapy
Robert Liberman applied __________principles to family therapy?
Robert Liberman is a major figure in behavioral family therapy.
Operant interpersonal therapy combines the principles of operant conditioning with?
Social exchange theory
What is the social exchange theory?
It conceptualizes satisfaction in relationships in terms of cost-reward ratios.
What is Bowens view on differentiation?
He proposes that when family members are highly differentiated, they are less likely to become traingulated with other family members.
Damage to the medial temporal lobe is unlikely to have a significant impact on implicit memory as long as the _________ is/are unaffected.
Basal Ganglia - are central to implicit memory
Damage to the ____________ is associated with impairments in explicit memory?
Mammillary bodies
The medial thalamus is involved in the mediation of ____________memory, while the ventral thalamus is involved in ____________memory?
Explicit, implicit
Resperidone is associated with:
*Is less likely to produce extrapyramidal side effects than traditional antipsychotics
*Is associated with weight gain and sexual dysfunction
*Can produce NMS (Neuroleptic malignant syndrome) but this side effect is rare
*Has a delayed onset.
Side effects of beta-blockers are:
*Bradycsardia
*Fatigue and malaise and lead to a misdiagnosis of depression
*Decreased sexul ability
(Coldness in extremities is not associated with side effects of beta-blockers)
Kahneman and Tversky's notion of ______________is part of their cumulative prospect theory and refers to the tendency to weigh losses more heavily than gains.
Loss aversion
Status quo bias
Refers to the tendency to maintain the status quo because the disadvantages of changling are perceived to be greater than the advantages
Endowment effect
Refers to the tendency for the value of a good to increase for an individual when it becomes part of the individual's endowment (one of his/her possessions).
According to Kahneman and Tversky's notion of loss aversion:
People experience losses more intensely than gains of the same magnitude and consequently are unlikely to take risks
Gain/loss theory predicts
That a complement will be valued more by a person when it comes from a critic than from someone who has bestowed compliments in the past.
Divers notion of "career concept" refers to an individuals:
Career decisions
Career Concept
is a key concept in MJ Drivers theory of career management in organizations.