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241 Cards in this Set

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What is in the cluster A disorders?
paranoid, schizotypal, schizoid
which disorder from cluster A would be characterized by poor socialization, passiveness, and shyness?
schizoid
which disorder in cluster A would be characterized by: distrust, irritability, lack of feelings for others?
paranoid
which disorder from cluster A is the most serious?
Schizotypal
What could an over all description be of cluster B?
disorders that are dramatic and emotional
which disorder does this describe: no guilt, exploitive, disregard for others, illegal activites, initially charming,manipulative
antisocial, cluster b
describe what a person w/ borderline personality disorder would be like
intense, chaotic, impulsive, black and white thinking, self-destruction, self mutilates, manipulative, (most common disorder)
Which disorder from group B is colorful,dramatic,sexual, attention seeking, exhibitionistic, extroverted, requires constant approval, independant,seductive,distractable
histrionic
Which disorder has exaggerated view of self, lacks empathy, overly self centered, and sees themselves as superior?
narcissistic
How could cluster C be broadly defined?
fearful/anxious
Which cluster C disorder fears rejection, has low self esteem, is w/drawn, offended easily, has slow speech, often lonely, develops depression, anxiety and anger for failing to form social relationships
avoidant
The person w/ this disorder would be submissive, clingy, poor independant decision making, passive, do anything for acceptance
dependant
this cluster c disorder is characterized by preoccupation w/ perfection, rules, organization, and control.Is meticulous, self critical, inflexible, etc
obsessive compulsive
what type of therapy may be used to develop basic social skills?
group therapy
what type of therapy is needed for self insight and relationships?
long term therapy
what may be used to treat altered thoughts, paranoia, illusions?
antipsychotics
the core element of ...psychotherapy is the est. of an empathetic therapist
interpersonal
which type of therapy uses guided discovery in which the therapist functions as a role model for client
interpersonal
Interpersonal psychotherapy is suggested for what types of disorders?
paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, borderline, dependent, narcissistic, OCD
what is the TX of choice for those w/ histrionic disorder?
pscychoanalytical psychotherapy
what type of tx focuses on unconscious motivation for seeking total satisfaction from others and for being unable to commit?
psychoanalytical
what type of therapy offers reinforcement for positive change?
cognitive/behavioral
what therapy helps clients recognize/correct inaccurate internal mental schema?
cognitive/behavioral
cognigtive/behavioral therapy is often helpful for whom?
OCD, passive/aggressive, antisocial, avoidant
which clients often benefit from antipscychotic meds?
clients w/ paranoid, schizotypal, and borderline
what sorts of things can antipsychotic meds help improve?
illusions, ideas of reference, paranoid thinking, anxiety, hostility
What type of drugs are successful in reducing anger, impulsiveness, and mood instability in boderline personality disorder?
SSRI's
the combination of lithium carbonate and propranolol may be useful for the violent episodes observed in whom?
those w/ antisocial personalities
what drugs are sometimes used for those w/ avoidant personalities?
anxiolytics
whay type of drugs may be useful for those w/ panic disorders?
antidepressants
what percentage of the population is bipolar?
10%
what percent of those who are bipolar are women and what percentage are men?
10-25% (women)
5-12% (men)
the highest rates of bipolar are ?
married women,single men, higher social class (esp pros and highly educated)
what does the neurotransmitter deficit theory of biological theories of depresion postulate?
that there is a deficit of norepi, serotonin, and dopamine
the neuroendocrine dysregulation theory suggests what is/are predisposing factors of depression?
hypothalamic/pitutitary/ adrenal axis has hyperactivity w/ elevated serum cortisol lvls
what are the other biological theories of depression (other than neuroendocrine/ neuro transmitter)
genetic and physiological illness and med. side effect and nutritional deficiencies
what does the learning theory say about depression?
that there is a lack of social support during loss and a percieved lack of control over events causing learned helplessness
Depression is a result of loss of loved object is what theory?
psychoanalytical
depression is a result of negative processing of thoughts w/ neg. expectaions of environ./self/ future is a description of what theory?
cognitive theory of depression
describe the three theories of bipolar disorder
genetics (increased in fam.s)
biochemical: excess of norepi and dopamine/ low seratonin
physiological: brain lesions/ med side effects
what is first when dealing w/ any patient?
safety
what are some symptoms of depression?
anhedonia,loneliness, helplessness, worthlessness, decrease in decision making and concentration, flat affect, inability to focus, etc
what are some symptoms of mania?
euphoria, inflated self esteem, lack of sleep, racing thoughts, pressured speech, irritability, grandiosity, etc
What are some treatments of depression?
increase social interaction, increase activity and excersise, monitor sleep/ nutrition/ fluids, give positive input
treatments of depression cont..
encourage to express feelings, assess for suicidal ideations, increase choices w/ client improvement, medications or ECT treatment
what are some treatments for mania?
breif/direct interaction, assess fluids/nutrition, may need help w/ app. dress, make up and personal hygeine, sleep, medications
What is the difference bet. bipolar I and bipolar II
bipolar II does not have full manic episodes, but does have full depression
...describes an individuals sustained emotional tone, which influences behavior, personality and perception
mood
..mood swings from depression to mania w/ intervening periods of normalcy. May or may not be psychotic
bipolar
..type of bipolar disorder in which the predominant mood is elevated, expansive, or irritable?
mania
severe form of major depressive episode. symptoms are exaggerated/intereest or pleasure in virtually all activities is lost
melancholia
..the psychological process through which the individual passes on the way to successful adaptation to the loss of a valued object
grief
..a subjective state of emotional, physical, and social responses to an anticipated loss of a valued entity
anticipatory grieving
..the absense of evidence of grief when it is ordinarily expected
delayed grief
..an intensification of grief to the point that the person is overwhelmed, demonstrates prolonged maladaptive behavior
delayed grief
..extreme slow down of physical movements. Posture slumps, speech is slowed, digestion sluggiesh. common in severe depression
dysthymic disorder
..a disorder that is characterized by depressed mood, anixiety, mood swings, and decreased interest in activites during the week before menses and subsiding shortly after the onset of mentsruation
premenstrual dysphoric disorder
a mild form of mania. symptoms are excessive hyperactivity, but not severe enough to cause marked impairment of functioning
hypomania
chronic mood disturbance w/ numerous episodes of hypomania and depressed mood, not strong enough to be labled bipolar
cychlothymic disorder
type of therapy in which the individual is taught to control thought distortions that are considered to be a factor in the dev./maintenence of emotional disorders
cognitive therapy
an accumulation of grief that occurs when an individual experiences many loses over a short period of time, common among the elderly
bereavement overload
a grave form of mania characterized by severe clouding of conscience/ representing an intensification of the symptoms associated w/ acute mania
delerious mania
an amino acid that should not be taken w/ MAOI's
tyramine
what factors might increase suicide risk?
alcohol, ill health, family or personal hx of suicide attempts, having a lethal plan, isolation, impulsivity or aggressiveness
what are some demographics of those likely to commit suicide?
adolescance or over 65, male, caucasion, single/divorced, low or high class, health care pro or business person, uses guns, protestant, family hx
what disorders are the most common to precdede suicide?
mood (bipolar/depression)
what, other than bipolar and depression, are some psych. disorders that may precede suicide?
anxiety, schizophrenia, borderline, antisocial
after severe depression: sudden lift of mood and/or giving away cherished items could be a clue to what?
a suicide attempt
if a person is suicidal, what should you find out?
if he/she has a plan and means to carry it out and does the person have a support system
what are precipitating life events that may lead to suicide?
loss of loved one, probs in major relationships, changes in roles, serious illness
anger turned inward is really, according to freud, what?
directed toward others
what is believed to be a central underlying factor to predisposition to suicide?
hopelessness
a hx of ....and...is thought to be an imp. factor underlying the suicidal behavior
aggression and violence
what is the principal stressor (in relation to suicide) in the 40-60 age group
economics
what plays a significant role in regard to suicide among those age 60+ and especially those over 80
health
the response of suicide in the individual who feels separate and apart from the main stream of society is--
egoistic suicide
a person who commits suicide that is excessively integrated into the group
altruistic
suicide in response to changes in an individuals life that disrupt feelings of relatedness to the group
anomic suicide
Which type of twins of a higher incidense of suicide between them?
monozygotic (identical)
what are some neurochemical factors related to suicide
deficiency in seratonin, increases in beta adrenergic recepter binding, reductions in corticotrophin releasing factor binding
what might be a good response to someone who lost someone dear to them?
"you must be feeling very sad about your loss"
If someone says that when they leave the psych unit they are going to try a no fail method of suicide, what might the nurse appropriately say?
"what exactly do you plan to do?"
what are some positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
delusions, hallucinations, bizarre dress and behavior, disorganized thought, agressive, suicidal, idea of reference, disorganized speech
what are some negative signs of schizophrenia?
flat affect, poor eye contact, apathy, anhedonia, poverty of speech, poor grooming, apathy, no interest, disturbed relationships, isolation
what is the percentage of schizophrenia in the population
1.5%
when does schizophrenia usually begin?
adolescence or early adulthood
what percentage of siblings of offspring w/ schizophrenia share the diagnosis "schizophrenia"?
10%
what is the percentage of twins that share the dx schizophrenia?
50%
what is the psychoanalytic/developmental link to schizophrenia?
distortion in mother/child relationship. anxious mothering and enmeshment faulty reality interpretation
what is the dopamine hypothesis related to schizophrenia?
dopamine is increased, seratonin decreased, norepi decreased
what are the immunologic factors of schizophrenia?
viral infection during 2nd trimester. Also malnutrition during pregnancy
an accumulation of grief that occurs when an individual experiences many loses over a short period of time, common among the elderly
bereavement overload
a grave form of mania characterized by severe clouding of conscience/ representing an intensification of the symptoms associated w/ acute mania
delerious mania
what disorders are the most common to precede suicide?
mood (bipolar/depression)
what, other than bipolar and depression, are some psych. disorders that may precede suicide?
anxiety, schizophrenia, borderline, antisocial
after severe depression: sudden lift of mood and/or giving away cherished items could be a clue to what?
a suicide attempt
if a person is suicidal, what should you find out?
if he/she has a plan and means to carry it out and does the person have a support system
what are the developmental stressors predisposing an adolescant to suicide?
conflict, separation, rejection
what are the neurochemical factors related to suicide
deficiency in serotonin in depressed clients, increases in B-adrenergic receptor binding; reduction in cortico trophon-releasing factor binding
how does schizophrenia impact a persons life?
no disorder is more crippling
when does schizophrenia begin (developmentally)?
late adolescence or early childhood
what are some family factors influencing succeptiblity to schizophrenia?
unhealthy adaptation esp if there are secrets and the child feels in a double bind or guilty or repressed unhappiness
The incidence of schizophrenia is higher in what socioeconomic class?
lower
what can increase symptoms of schizophrenia?
stressful life events
describe disorganized(hebephrenic) schizophrenia?
severe disintegration of personality, insidious and early (before 25) onset, poor prog, poor grooming, disorg. speech, rocking, grunting, grimacing, about age 7-8
describe catatonic schizophrenia
marked by abnormalities in motor behavior and may be manifested in the form of stupor or excitment
what are some signs of catatonia?
waxy flexibility, intense motor disturbance, sudden onset, can become malnurished, can hear but is mute, complete remission can be acheived
describe paranoid schizophrenia
presense of delusions of persecution or grandeur and auditory hallucinations related to a single theme
what are the signs of paranoid schizophrenia?
tense, suspicious, guarded, hostile, aggressive
describe undifferentiated schizophrenia
a pt that does not meet criteria for any of the subtypes or more than one subtype
signs of undifferentiated schizophrenia?
odd behavior over years of time, delusions, hallucinations, poor prognosis
what is residual schizophrenia
individual who has a hx of at least one previous episode of schizophrenia w/ prominent psychotic symptoms (many neg. few pos)--usually no hallucinations or delusions
what is schizoaffective disorder?
manifested by schizophrenic behaviors, w/ strong element of symptomatology associated w/ mood disorders.
what are some symptoms of schizoaffective disorder?
may appear depressed or euphoric but has schizophrenic symptoms. better prog/may have remissions
what is schizophreniform?
identical to schizophrenia, but lasts 1-6 months. may be able to function socially and occupationally
define: neologism
creating a new word that is not part of the language
define echolalia:
repeating the same word over and over after someone else says it first
define: word salad
words put together w/ no logical order
define: magical thinking
thoughts of being all knowing/all controlling/ all powerful
define: flight of ideas
abrupt change in topics w/ a rapid flow
define: circumstantial
many unnecessary details
define: histrionic
dramatic, over emotional behavior, attention seeking
define: catalepsy
waxy flexibility
define: echopraxia
imitating the movements of others
define: hallucination
a sensory perception involving one of the five senses
define: delusion
thoughts that are not open to reason and not reality based
define: poverty of thought
vague, disconnected thoughts
define: thought blocking
interruption in the flow of thoughts
define: anhedonia
loss of interest of pleasure in activities
define: thought broadcasting
some medium is broadcasting the person's thought to others
define: idea of reference
incorrect interpretation of incidents and external events
define: Nihilism
belief that existance is meaningless and useless
define: psychosis
a state in which one's capacity to recognize reality is limited
define: apraxia
loss of ability to carry out purposeful movements
define: tangential
irrelevant material
A patient is delusional and wanting the nurse to participate in the delusion, what should the nurse respond to?
he/she should respond only to reality
What is a therapeutic technique for dealing w/ irrational beliefs?
do not argue or deny the belief. Use reasonable doubt "I find that hard to believe"
define: formication
the sensation that something is crawling on or under the skin
what is the most common type of hallucination?
auditory
the purpose of individual therapy for the schizophrenic is--
decrease anxiety and increase trust
what is the purpose of education for family members of schizophrenics?
it is to help the client identify sources of real or percieved danger and ways of reacting appropriately
what is the purpose of group therapy for schizophrenics?
increase support (this is a long term therapy)
common side effects of antypsychotic meds?
dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention, nausea, GI upset, rash, sedation, orthostatic hypotension, photosensitivity
common side effects of antipsychotic meds..
, decreased libido, retrograde ejaculation, gynecomastia, amenorrhea, weight gain, reduction in seizure threshold, agranulocytosis
common side effects of antipsychotic meds con...
extrapyrimidal symptoms, tardive diskonesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
how long does it take to see effects of antipsychotic meds?
several weeks
what question should one never ask a psych patient?
"why"
what is somatoform disorder?
person has physical symptoms suggesting medical disease but w/o any organic pathophysiolgical condition to account for them
what are predisposing factors for somatoform disorder?
unable to express emotions; role modeling in fams; nurturing in fams is conditional
what are some cultural and environmental factors of somatoform disorder?
if not acceptable to have emotional probs, it becomes physical probs instead; appears more commonly in low socioeconmic/occup/ed status
what are the symptoms of somatoform disorder?
syndrome of multiple somatic symptoms before age 30 that occur over several years and cause impairment in social and occupational functioning
symptoms of somatoform disorder cont...
4 pain symptoms, 2 gi symptoms (nausea/vom), 1 sexual sym, 1 pseudo neurological symp (paralysis, blindness, deafness), anxiety and depression are often seen
tx for somatoform disorder
individual psychotherapy
goal of individual psychotherapy for somatoform disorder?
help clients to develop healthy and adaptive behaviors
what is the purpose of group psychotherapy for somatoform disorder?
it provides a setting where clients can share experiences, learn to verbalize,and can be confronted when they reject responsibility
what is the tx of choice for somatoform disorder
group pscychotherapy
what type of therapy for somatoform disorder invloves working w/ clients family who may be perpetuating the disease?
behavior therapy
what type of pscyhopharmacology is appropriate for those w/ somatoform disorder?
antidepressants (tricyclics & SSRI's)
what is the essential feature of pain disorder?
severe prolonged pain that causes clincally significant distress or impairment of social/occupational functioning
what are the predisposing factors of pain disorder?
symptoms enable the pt to avoid some unpleasant activity and promotes emotional support or attention
what is the psychodynamic theory of pain disorder?
pt may be expressing intrapsychic conflict through the body; they want more attention than their emotional pain will ellicit
what is the behavior theory of pain disorder?
the pt recieves reinforcement when they have increased attention and they get relief from responsibility
what is the classical conditioning theory of pain disorder
previously neutral stimulus may become a trigger for pain related behaviors when it becomes associated in the mind with a painful stimulus
what is the operant conditioning theory of pain disorder?
learning occurs when pain behaviors are positively or negatively reinforced.
what is the family dynamics theory of pain disorder?
symptoms may be used to coerce others or manipulate and gain advantage in personal relationships
what is the neurophysiological theory of pain disorder?
the cerebral cortex and medulla are involved in inhibiting the firing of afferent pain fibers
what are the symptoms of pain disorder?
dx is made when psychological factors have been judged to have a major role in the onset,severity, exacerbation, or mainteneance of the pain, even when the physical examination reveals patholgy that is associated w/ the pain
Tx of pain disorder?
behavior therapy or working w/ family who may provoke symptoms; also antidepressants and anticonvulsants (dilantin)
the unrealistic or inaccurate interpretation of physical symptoms leading to preoccupation of having a serious illness even though appprpriate medical reassurance is given
hypochondriasis
what are the symptoms of hypochondriasis?
the belief is not delusional and lasts for at least 6 months, OCD traits frequently occur
transformation of aggressive hostile wishes toward others into physical complaints about the self that are more acceptable is what theory about hypochodriasis?
psychodynamic theory
what hypochondriasis theory says that hypoc. is the result of an expression of low self esteem b/c it's easeir to feel something is wrong w/ the body than the self
psychodynamic theory
the theory that hypochondriacs belive that physical suffering is deserved punishment required for atonement
psychodynamic theory
which theory of hypcondriasis states: bodily sensations are intensified and then faulty thinking causes neg. thoughts to be attached to the sensations
cognitive theory
describe the social learning theory of hypochondriasis
somatic comlaints are reinforced when the sick role relieves the pt of needing to deal w/ stressful situation
describe the 'past experiences w/ physical illnesses' theory of hypochondriasis
person has had a life threatening illness in the past which causes them to worry that the illness will recur
tx for hypochondriasis
individual, group
tx of choice for hypochodriasis and why it's the tx of choice
group: it provides the social support and social interaction these clients need
describe conversion disorder
loss of or change in body function resulting from psychological conflict, the physical symptoms of which can't be explained by any known med disorder or conditon. clients unaware of psych. basis and can't control symptoms
symptoms of conversion disorder
one or more symptoms affecting voluntary motor or sensory function, psych factors ass. w/ symptom of deficit; disturbance in social/occ function; ignition of exacerbation of symptoms is preceded by stress
psychoanalytical theory of conversion disorder?
emotions associated w/ tramatic event are unacceptable to client so they convert them to physical symptoms
familial factors r/t conversion disorder?
occurs more often in relatives
behavioral theory r/t conversion disorder
the individual uses physical symptoms to communicate helplessness, gain attention or support
nueruophysiological theroy r/t conversion disorder
central nervous system involvement due to excessive cortical arousal
describe body dysmorphic disorder
characterized by the exaggerated belief that the body is deformed or defective in some specific way
symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder
exaggerated belief that body is deformed; common belief in flaws in face or head, interferes w/ social/occ functioning
predisposing factors of body dysmorphic disorder
etiology is unknown, belief may be due to schizophrenia or anxiety, may be similar to hypochondriasis or phobia
define insomina
difficulty w/ initiating or maintaining sleep
define hypersomnia
excessive sleepiness or seeking excessive amounts of sleep
define narcolepsy
sleep attacks that the person can't prevent. Also sudden loss of muscle tone
define parasomina
unusual to undesirable behaviors that occur during sleep (nightmare, night terror, sleep walking)
define circadian rhythm sleep disorder
a misalignment between sleep and wake behaviors (shift work, jet lag, delayed sleep phase)
what are predisposing factors of sleep disorders?
genetic, medical, anxiety/depression, minor abnormalities in temporal lobe, alcohol or other CNS depressant
psychosocial influences of cancer (???)
type C personality; extreme suppresion of emotions; pos correlation bt stress and tumors
tx modalities for cancer
relaxation/mental imagry; teaching indiv w/ C personality; immune responses are enhanced when there is a greater feeling of well-being
coronary heart disease, psychosocial influences
type A personality; easily hostile, aggressive/ ambitious; no hobbies/must do more; struggles to acheive
tx modalities for coronary heart disease
progressive relaxation/ auto hypnosis/meditation/ biofeedback/group therapy; reduction of type A behavior
How can reduction of type A behavior be accomplished?
education, interpersonal counseling, behavior mod therapy
psychosocial influences w/ peptic ulcer
hostility increases gastric secretions, link b/w ulcers and stress
psychosocial influences for essential hypertension
congeinal, compliant, compulsive, inhibited rage
tx modalities for essential hypertension
meditation, yoga, hypnosis, biofeedback reduce bp; supportive therapy where the indiv. is encouraged to express honest feelings (particularly anger)
psychosocial influences of migrane headaches
perfectionist, overly conciencious, inflexible; meticlous, hard workers, neat; intelligent, repressed anger, emotional stress
tx modalities for migranes
help to recognize stressors; help cope w/ feelings of insecurity dependancy depression; help express feelings of repressed anger
rheumatoid arthritis psychosocial influences
self sacrificing, masochistic, conforming, self conscious, perfectionist, inability to express anger; emotional decompensation may exacerbate ra
tx modalities for rheumatoid arthritis
encourage to function as independantly as possible; focus on cure should be deflected to a foucs on control of the disease and prevention of disability
psychosocial influences on ulcerative colitis
compulsivity, mother child relationship resulting in feelings of helplessness/ hopelessness; onset associated w/ stressful life events
tx modalities for ulcerative colitis
help recognize stressors, help cope w/ insecurity dependancy depression; help express feelings of of repressed or suppressed anger and hostility
After ECT, how long should the client remain in the recovery room?
1-3 hours, until vital signs are stable and the client is alert, oriented, and able to walk w/o assistance.
what are the most common side effects of ECT?
headache and memory loss
if a client has a headache after ECT, what might he/she be instructed to do?
take a mild analgesic and rest
what does the nurse do for a client who have undergone ECT?
allays fears and concerns, takes vital signs, offers support/comfort/reassurance, repetative teaching for those w/ memory loss.
describe seasonal affective disorder
major depresion (uni or bipolar) at a particular time each year. Pattern must be evident for 2 consecutive years w/ no intervening non seasonal episodes. Seasonal episodes outnumber any nonseasonal episodes over a lifetime
when do clients w/ Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) often develop depression? When does it often remit
depression occurs during oct/nov and remits in march/april
what sort of pattern does bipolar II and bipolar I disorder sometimes have?
bipolar II sometimes has a seasonal pattern in which increased light triggers manic or hypomanic episodes
what is a tx that is often used w/ SAD?
phototherapy
describe some aspects of phototherapy
minimum of 2500 lux admin. on waking for 30 minutes
what is the mechanism of action for phototherapy
it's mechanism is unclear; it's thought that exposure to morning light causes circadian rhythm shift that regulates the normal relationship bet. sleep and circadian rhythm
what are the side effects of phototherapy?
they are rare, so report: irritability, hyperactivity, or insomnia
describe psychomotor retardation
client appears slowed down, depressed, dissheveled, stooped posture, little eye contact, increased need for naps
what are the interventions for psychomotor retardation
same as depression: increase social interaction, min. isolation, increase activity/ excersise, monitor sleep/ nutrition, positive input, new coping skills, assess for suicide, increase choices w/ improvement, medication or ECT
defintion of adjustment disorder
short term disturbance in mood or behavior w/ non psychotic manifestations resulting from identifiable stressors. Seen in people experiencing life transitions
describe the realtionship bet. adjustment disorder and depression
can have w/ or w/o major depression; symptoms may abate w/ time; may lead to more serious mental health problems
define: suicidal ideation
thoughts or fantasies of suicide can be expressed through writing or artwork
define: suicide threats
verbal or written w/o action
define: suicide gestures
minor or no injury to self, no intention to die
define suicide attempts:
serious actions resulting in minor or major injury. Gestures and attempts are sometimes called parasuicidal behavior
interventions for delusional thoughts and hallucinations (continued over 3 cards)
intensive psychopharmacological tx, supportive and directive communication; clear concrete statement,
interventions for delusional thoughts (2/3)
praise for reality based perceptions/reduction in aggressive behaviors, and appropriate social interaction and group participation
interventions for delusional thoughts (3/3)
psychiatric, medical, and neurological evaluation
all known antipsychotics are .....blockers (think neuro transmitter)
dopamine
currently available newer antipsychotics block...to a greater degree than dopamine
seratonin
what are the neurotransmitters associated w/ schizophrenia?
dopamine(incr), seratonin (dec), acetylcholine(dec), Norepi(dec), Cholecystokinin (dec), glutamate (dec), aminobutyric
what are some atypical antipsychotics
risperdal, zyprexia, clozaril, seroquel, geodon
what are some mood stabilizers
lithium and anticonvulsants
what are some causes of relapse of schizophrenia
poor insight leading to denial of illness, nonadherence to tx, lack of fam. support, inability to cope w/ complex mental health system, failure of meds to maintain their efficacy in the long term, high cost of meds
during the coconut grove fire of 1942, what did eric lindmann find helped people prevent later psychologic difficulties
helping bereaved people through the mourning process
what are some interventions for people dealing w/ crisis?
listen/observe/ask questions to categorize nature of event, remove danger, coordinate w/ other agencies, anticipate future needs and develop a plan for the client that meets those needs
describe sitiational crisis
crisis that is apparent to another observer and viewed as something that is liekly to cause a threat to safety
name some examples of situational crisis
terrorism, disasters, loss of a job, a spousal affair, serious medical condition
why should the nurse use anticipatory teaching w/ a person experiencing a situational crisis?
sometimes the crisis appears settled, but psychiatric symptoms occur later
what sorts of questions would the nurse ask in a crisis intervention?
cheif complaint, hx of present illness, family hx, past medical hx, drug/alcohol hx, cultural/spiritual issues, coping skills