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62 Cards in this Set

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The study of the action of drugs on the body
pharmacology
The study of drug actions on the brain and behavior
psychopharmacology
substances that affect the central nervous system and alter consciousness and/or perceptions
psychoactive drugs (aka psychotropic)
study of central nervous system
neuroanatomy
what percentage of americans have taken psychoactive drugs during thier lifetime
50%
schedule I
high abuse potiential, no medical use, high potential for dependence. Not available with a prescription. (e.g., heroin, marijuana, LSD, peyote)
schedule II
high abuse potential, accepted medical uses, high risk of dependence. Doctor must see the patient before refilling a script (e.g., opium, morphine, cocaine, codeine, ritalin)
schedule III
moderate abuse potential, accepted medical uses, moderate risk of dependence, script can be refilled over the phone (e.g., Tylenol with codeine)
schedule IV
mild to moderate potential for abuse, accepted medical use, limited risk of hysical dependence, same prescription guidelines as schedule III (e.g., valium, librium)
schedule V
low risk of abuse, accepted medical use, low risk of physical dependence, prescription not needed (e.g., some codeine meds, robitussin)
2 parts of CNS
brain, spinal cord
3 parts of brain
cerebrum, limbic system, brain stem and cerebellum
cerebral cortex
a sheet of tissue that makes up the outer layer of the brain
4 lobes of the cerebrum
frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital
frontal lobe contols...
executive functions, reasoning and planning, inhibition of impulses
temporal lobe controls...
auditory area, language comprehension, memory, experience of emotions
parietal lobe controls...
senses, face and hands
occipital lobe controls...
visual area, reading and recognition
cerebral cortex left and right hemispheres primary functioning
left = language
right = creativity
basal ganglia controls...
movement and posture
6 structures of the limbic system
thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, olfactory bulb
Thalamus
relay station of the brain
hypothalamus
basic motivation: hunger/thirst/sexual behavior
amygdala
aggression and anger, fight or flight
hippocampus
memory formation
cingulate gyrus
cognitive flexibility, going from idea to idea
olfactory bulb
smell
2 parts of brain stem
medulla and reticular activating system
medulla
involuntary, autonomic activities (breathing, swallowing, etc.)
reticular activating system
regulates level of arousal/attention, serves as a "toggle switch" b/w limbic system (emotion) and the cortex (thought).
cerebellum
control of voluntary movements
general parts of a nerve cell
cell body (soma) and its processes (dentrites and axon)
the interface between the two cells usually occurring on the dendritic tree
synapse
space between axonal terminal and the dendrite or soma
synapic cleft
7 neurotransmitters
acetycholine, catecholamines, serotonin, glutamate, GABA, peptides, substance P
catecholamines include...
dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine
substance P
enhances the experience of pain
peptides
protiens involved in a wide variety of emotional states
GABA
enhanced by meds used to treat anxiety, seizures, muscle relaxants and sedatives
Glutamate
sensory functioning
serotonin
plays role in depression and affective states, sleep, sex, body temp
norepinephrine
release produces arousal and reward feelings, also, hunger, thirst, emotion and sex
dopamine
motor control
acetychoine
learning and memory, mood, REM sleep
palliative response
relieves the symptoms of a disease but does not affect the disease itself
curative response
cures a disease or condition
supportive response
supports body functions until other treaments or the body's response can take over
substitutive response
replaces body fluids or substances
chemotherapeutic response
destroys malignant cells
restorative response
returns the body to health
summative interaction
the combined effects of two drugs equal the sum of each drug acting individually (1+1=1)
synergistic interaction
the combined effects of two drugs is greater than the sum of each drug acting individually (1+1=3)
potentiative interaction
concurrent administration of one drug increases the effect of the other drug (1+1>2)
antagonistic interacation
combind effect of two drugs is less than the sum of the individual effects of each agent (1+1<2)
iatrogenic
adverse drug effects inflicted unintentionally as a result of treatment
biologic half-life
the time interval required for the body's elimination processes to reduce the plasma concentration of the drug in the body by one-half
peyote
mescaline, (amphetamine), cactus buttons, vivid hallucinations
marijuana
from a Cannabis plant, active ingredient: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), produces euphoria
strattera
only non-stimulant med for ADD, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI)
cocaine
increases dopamine in synapse
methamphetamine
prevents norepinephrine and dopamine re-uptake
ecstasy
increases serotonin and dopamine, produces euphoria