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93 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of Emotion?
A state of arousal defined by subjective feeling states
What is the definition of Mood?
Mood is a pervasive and sustained emotional state
What is a Mood Disorder?
It is a profound, long term change in mood that has psychological, behavioral, social and societal causes and consequences
What are the criterion for Major Depression?
Either: Depressed mood (irritable in kids) or Diminished interest or pleasure in activities
And:
Weight/appetite changes, insomnia/hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation/retardation, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness OR excessive guilt, trouble thinking/concentrating, recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts
What is Anhedonia?
It is the inability to experience pleasure from activities usually found enjoyable
Let's say that someone has all the symptoms for a disorder, but they just sustained a major head injury? (virus, medication, drugs, etc.)
We cannot diagnose them with a psychopathological disorder
What's the difference between dysthymia and depression?
Dysthymia is continual low-level depressed mood for at least two years. Symptoms are the same as in depression with the exception of: feelings of hopelessness and low self-esteem.
What is Double Depression?
Double Depression is both MDD and dysthymia.
What are the six specifiers of Uni/Bipolar disorders?
Melancholic features, Atypical features, Catatonic features, Psychotic Features, Seasonal Patterns, and Postpartum Onset
Define: Melancholic features
Either loss of pleasure OR reactivity and (3):
Distinct quality, worse in morning, early morning awakening, psychomotor differences, weight loss, inappropriate/excessive guilt
Define: Atypical Features
Mood Reactivity (and 2):
Weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, interpersonal rejection sensitivity
Define: Catatonic Features
(Need 2):
Motoric Immobility, Excessive motor activity, extreme negativity or mutism, peculiarities of movement, echolalia
Define: Psychotic Features
With mood congruent or incongruent delusions or hallucinations
Define: Seasonal Patterns
Regular Temporal Relationship in onset
Define: Postpartum Onset
Onset within 4 weeks after delivery of baby
How common is Unipolar Depression in the US? Is it becoming more common?
5-10% of US population experiences sever per year, 3-5% experience mild depression.
Yes, it is becoming more common.
Who experiences depression more, men or women? Why?
Women; hormones, rumination, emotion focused coping, interpersonal focus, chronic poverty
Is depression constant across socioeconomic classes?
Yes, it is.
What is the diagnostic criterion for a Manic Episode?
A distinct period of abnormally elevated mood (1 week) AND (3 or more):
Grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, talkative/pressure to keep talking, racing thoughts, distractibility, increased goal directed activity, involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences
What is the difference between Bipolar I and Bipolar II?
Less mania AND a major depressive episode in Bipolar II
What is a Hypomanic Episode?
Shorter manic episode! Doesn't cause marked impairment, needs unequivocal change
What is Cyclothymia?
It's a chronic but less severe form of bipolar disorder
How common are bipolar disorders? Who gets them more: men or women?
1-1.5% of adults suffer from bipolar disorder.
They are equally common, but women are more likely to have more depressive episodes and rapid cycle more.
What Causes Mood Disorders?
STRESS! (especially the first episode)
Biology: Genetic factors
Biochemical: low serotonin and low/high norepinephrine (depression/mania), although lately there has been more interest in GABA and dopamine
What is the significance of the L/L 5 HTT gene?
If you have that gene, you are less likely to report depressed symptoms
What is the significance of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis?
People with MDD may have poorly regulated HPA systems
How common are bipolar disorders? Who gets them more: men or women?
1-1.5% of adults suffer from bipolar disorder.
They are equally common, but women are more likely to have more depressive episodes and rapid cycle more.
What causes depression according to a cognitive perspective?
Negative thinking and rumination
What are some treatments?
Biological: medication, ect, transcranial magnetic stimulation, light therapy
What are the three kind of medications?
SSRIs, tricyclics, and lithium
What causes depression according to a cognitive perspective?
Negative thinking and rumination
What is the difference between fear and anxiety?
Fear is an abrupt and aversive respponse to real threat or danger, whereas anxiety is a more diffuse response about impending real or imagined threat or danger
Anxiety disorders must be:
Out of proportion to actual, current danger, and cause clinically significant distress or significantly interfere with normal life
What are the criterion for GAD?
Excessive anxiety and worry occurring more days than not for at least six months AND (need 3):
restlessness/keyed up, easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance.
ALSO does not occur during a mood disorder or psychotic disorder
How about specific phobias?
Marked by a persistent fear that is unreasonable cued by a specific object/situation, exposure to stimulus provokes an immediate anxiety response, person recognizes irrationality, phobic situation is avoided
And Social Phobias?
Persistent fear of social situations in which person is exposed to possible scrutiny, person believes they act in a way that humiliates them, exposure to situation provokes anxiety that the person realizes is unreasonable, situations are avoided
What are the criterion for Panic Disorder?
NEED 4:
accelerated heart rate, sweating, shaking, sensations of shortness of breath, feelings of choking, chest pain, nausea, dizziness/faint, depersonalization, fear of going crazy, fear of dying, numbness or tingling, chills or hot flashes
What is Agoraphobia?
It is anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult in which help may not be available in the event of a panic attack
What is an obsession?
It is a recurrent and persistent thought or impulse (intrusive and inappropriate) that the person tries to ignore or suppress
What is a compulsion?
It is a repetitive behavior that the person feels they must perform (according to rigid rules) in order to prevent or reduce distress. The person realizes the irrationality or their compulsions
What are the criterion for PTSD?
The person has been exposed to a traumatic event, the person has re-experiencing symptoms, the person exhibits avoidance/numbing, the person exhibits arousal symptoms
What are the re-experiencing symptoms?
(NEED 1)
Reccurent and intrusive recollections of the event, dreams about the event, acting as if the event were recurring, intense psychological distress at exposure cues, physiological reactivity on exposure to cues
What are the avoidance/numbing symptoms?
NEED 3:
Efforts to avoid thoughts/feelings associated with trauma, efforts to avoid activities that are associated, inability to recall important aspect, anhedonia, detachment, restricted range of affect, sense of a foreshortened future
What are the arousal symptoms?
NEED 2:
Difficulty with sleep, irritability, difficulty concentrating, hyper-vigilance, exaggerated startle response
What happens if the symptoms are shorter than one month?
Then we diagnose acute stress disorder!
What is the behavioral etiology for general anxiety?
Avoidance conditioning, modeling, prepared learning, diathesis needed, social skills (social phobia only)
What parts of the brain are associated with panic, ocd, and ptsd?
Panic -- locus coerulus
OCD -- Orbitofrontal Cortex, Caudate, Anterior Cingulate
PTSD -- Hippocampus
What is the neurochemical etiology for general anxiety?
Fear circuit, poor serotonin function, increased norepinephrine, poor gaba function

Genes?
What are some psychological factors for general anxiety?
Sustained negative beliefs, lack of control, attention to threat, and fear of fear
What are the two "facing the fear" psychological treatments?
Systematic desensitization and exposure therapy (for ptsd)
What are the psychological treatments for Panic and Agoraphobia?
Panic control therapy (relaxation, CBT, and exposure to internal cues that trigger panic)
What are some treatments for OCD?
Exposure and ritual prevention and Cognitive behavioral therapy
What are some treatments for PTSD?
Both are controversial: CISD and EMDR
What are the Biological treatments for GAD, Panic, OCD, and PTSD?
Antidepressants and benzodiazepines
What is the last resort for OCD?
Psychosurgery (cingulatomy)
What is personality?
It's a set of unique traits and behaviors that characterize an individual
What is are the big five?
Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
What are the criterion for a personality disorder?
An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates (cognition, affectivity, interpersonal functioning, and impulse control), the pattern is inflexible and pervasive, clinical impairment, stable pattern, not better accounted for by another disorder
What are the three personality clusters?
Odd/Eccentric. Dramatic/Emotional, and Anxious/Fearful
What are the three p.d.'s in the odd/eccentric cluster?
Paranoid, schizotypal, and schizoid
What are the four p.d.'s in the dramatic/emotional cluster?
Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic
What are the three p.d.'s in the anxious/fearful cluster?
Avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive
What does Ego-syntonic mean?
It refers to behaviors, values, feelings that are in harmony with or acceptable to the needs and goals of the ego, or consistent with one's ideal self-image.
What characterizes Paranoid PD?
Personality traits involving extreme distrust and suspiciousness
What characterizes Schizotypal?
Eccentric behavior, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and acute discomfort with social relationships; hugely lacking in social skills
What characterizes Schizoid?
Detachment from social relationships (doesn't want them), restricted range of emotional expression
What characterizes Antisocial?
A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, deceitfulness, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and lack of remorse
What characterizes Borderline?
Between emotional extremes, abnormal interpersonal boundaries, self-destructive behavior that aims at attention seeking or manipulation
What characterizes histrionic?
Personality traits involving excessive, superficial emotionality and attention seeking
What characterizes narcissistic?
Personality traits involving extreme grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy
What characterizes avoidant?
Avoids activities due to fear of criticsm, disapproval or rejection, restrained in relationships, reluctant to take personal risks, and views self as inept, unappealing, and inferior
What characterizes dependent?
Personality traits involving submissive and clinging behavior related to an excessive need to be cared for by others
What characterizes Obessive-Compulsive?
Personality traits involving preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control at the expense of spontaneity, flexibility, and enjoyment
How do we treat personality disorders?
Specific skills traing and DBT
How do we treat personality disorders?
Specific skills traing and DBT
What is DBT?
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is when a therapist and an individual work towards improving one's life through improving skill sets
What is DBT?
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is when a therapist and an individual work towards improving one's life through improving skill sets
What is psychosis?
A loss of contact with reality
Is there a suicide risk associated with schizophrenia?
Absolutely.
What are the three groups of symptoms associated with schizophrenia?
Positive, negative, and psychomotor
What are some positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
Deulsions (controlled by others, persecution, reference, grandeur, and control), Disorderd thinking and speech, heightened perceptions, hallucinations, and inappropriate affect
What are some negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
Poverty of speech, blunted and flat affect, loss of volition, social withdrawal
What are some psychomotor symptoms of schizophrenia?
Catatonia, awkward movements, repeated grimaces, odd gestures
What is schizophreniform disorder?
An episode of the disorder (including prodromal, active, and residual phases) lasting at least 1 month but less than 6 months
What are the five subtypes of schizophrenia?
Disorganized, paranoid, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual
What is schizoaffective disorder?
During an interrupted period of illness there is either a MDE or ME, or mixed episode concurrent with symtpms that meet criteria for schizophrenia
What is Delusional Disorder?
Nonbizarre delusions of at least 1 month's duration -- hallucinations are typically not present.
What are the six types of delusions?
Erotomanic, grandiose, jealous, persecutory, somatic, and mixed
What are some causes of schizophrenia?
Genetics? Too much dopamine? Abnormal brain structure? Family dysfunctioning?
What are medications for schizophrenia?
Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs
What kinds of psychotherapy are useful for schizophrenia?
Insight therapy, family therapy, social therapy,
What are some benefits to community care?
Coordinated services, available short-term and partial hospitalization, supervised residences, occupational training
Why has community treatment failed?
People dont get the appropriate community mental health services, poor coordination of services, and a shortage of resources