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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
comorbidity
having more than one disorder at the same time
epidemiology
scientific study of the frequency and distribution of disorders in a population
experimental hypothesis
a prediction made by an investigator to be tested in an experiment
abnormal psychology
the application of psychological science to the study of mental disorders
symptoms
reportable indicators (e.g. hearing voices)
signs
observable indicators (e.g. slashed wrists)
syndrome
a group of signs and symptoms that represent a specific type of disorder
psychosis
disorder, out of touch with reality
personal distress
a way of defining psychopathology; subjective expression of feelings

inadequate when the person does not realize s/he is delusional (cf. Kevin the schizophrenic)
statistical rarity
a way of defining what is psychopathology; statistically unusual behavior

does not say how far outside of statistical norms something must be or consider whether the behavior is harmful or adaptive
harmful dysfunction
Wakefield's way of defining psychopathology; if the condition causes harm (as judged culturally) and results from internal dysfunction of a mental capacity, it is mental illness
DSM definition of psychopathology
associated with:
1. present distress
2. disability
3. significant risk of suffering pain, death, disability, etc.
biological disadvantage
Kendell's definition of psychopathology: if something causes an evolutionary disadvantage (increased mortality, decreased fertility)

YET, homosexuality, psoriasis meet these criteria, aren't considered mental illnesses
social constructions
Sedgwick's idea that all branches of medicine involve social value judgements, points of view
Antipsychiatrist critique
Thomas Szasz: mental illness is a myth. Mental problems caused by problems in living (moral conflicts)

argued that since psychiatry wasn't objective, it wasn't a legitimate medical profession

said too much power was given to psychologists
incidence
the number of new cases of a disorder that appear in a given time period
prevalence
the total number of cases of a disorder in a given time period
culture
shared values, beliefs, and practices
disease burden
the impact of disease on someone's life

takes into account mortality + disability
labeling theorist critique
self-fulfilling prophecies

Rosenhan Pseudopatient study: patients who were normal but said they were hearing voices were kept at mental institutions for weeks/months.
exaptations
something indirectly selected for (e.g. feathers originally provided warmth, not flight)
adaptations
something directly selected for (e.g. standing erect)
central tendency
want to find the middle for statistical purposes

mean, median, or mode
general paresis
(schizophrenia) found to be caused by the syphillus spirochete
father of systems theory
Ludwig von Bertalanffy
paradigm
comprised of a specific theory and a set of assumptions about how the theory is tested; thus the paradigm itself limits the field of possible factors to be evaluated
holism
the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
reductionism
the whole is only the sum of its parts
biological paradigm
abnormal behavior based on biological abnormalities
psychodynamic paradigm
abnormal behavior caused by unconscious mental conflicts rooted in childhood experience
cognitive-behavioral paradigm
abnormal behavior as a product of learning
humanistic paradigm
human behavior caused by choices. Emphasis on free will.
equifinality
many causes, one disorder
multifinality
one cause, many outcomes
reciprocal causality
instead of A causing B, B could be causing A

mutual simultaneous influence (e.g. parents and children)
diathesis
biological predisposition
stress
a difficult life experience that "triggers" predispositions
risk factor
things that are correlated with increased chance of having a disorder
third variable
the relationship between A and B could be caused by C.
premorbid history
pattern of behavior that precedes the disorder
prognosis
typical path that the disorder follows
descriptive psychopathology
describing (but not explaining) signs and symptoms
dualism
the idea that the mind and body are separate entities

can't describe PP as "chemical imbalances" because all psychological processes have a biological basis
bidirectional causality
each variable affects the other

e.g. brain injury effects psychological experience; loss of loved one effects brain activity
eliminative materialism (mind-body problem)
the idea that behavior and experience stem from purely biological causes

one-way causality from brain to mind

no free will
functionalism
(mind-body problem)
the idea that states of mind are functional states of the brain

two people can both have depression, but it could result from different biological causes

against: Searle's Chinese Room thought problem
probands
index cases

if a higher incidence of illness is found in families with an ill proband, it suggests genetic causation
concordance rates
higher concordance in MZ twins points to genetic influence

high concordance for MZ and DZ twins points to shared environment

low concordance for MZ and DZ points to non-shared environment.
causal factors for PP: psychological
1. human nature and temperament
2. learning and cognition
3. sense of self
4. stages of development
causal factors for PP: social
1. relationships
2. gender and gender roles
3. prejudice and poverty
4. societal values
limbic system
central to regulation of emotion and learning
psychophysiology
study of changes in the functioning of the body based on psychological experiences
possible misinterpretations of genetic findings
1. that a disorder is caused by a gene
2. that a genetic disorder is inevitable
3. that a characteristic of a genetic disorder cannot be modified
temperament
one's basic style of relating to the world (e.g. extroverted)
social cognition
how humans process information about themselves and others
modeling
learning through imitation
attributions
perceived causes; people's beliefs about cause-effect relations
mind-body problem
a philosophical and scientific challenge regarding how best to explain in compelling terms the fact that human consciousness, intentionality, subjectivity, agency and free will are somehow realized in the pysical materials or properties of functioning brains
biological approach to treating PP
ECT
psychosurgery
psychopharmacology
psychodynamic approach to treating PP
intervenes in unconscious motivations and defenses

hydraulic model of the mind

use transference, ego analysis (focuses on defense mechanisms)
cognitive-behavioral approach to treating PP
intervenes in learned patterns of behavior and cognition

Pavlov: classical conditioning
Skinner: operant conditioning

treatments: exposure, aversion, contingency management, social skills, cognitive techniques, Beck's cognitive tx, rational-emotive tx
humanistic model
intervenes in self-awareness, client-centered, therapist is non-expert, empathetic relationship
therapeutic triad
vulnerable patient + costly service + experienced clinician
independent variable
e.g. treatment vs. no treatment
dependent variable
the outcome that is proposed to vary (e.g. symptoms)
internal validity
whether something works (reliable causal interference)
external validity
whether something is generalizable (usefulness)
efficacy
can treatment work? (concerned with internal validity)
efficiency
does treatment work in the real world (concerned with external validity)
outcome research
the study of how effective therapies are in terms of alleviating symptoms
process research
which aspects of therapy are generating results?
consumer reports study
found 87% of people were helped by therapy, medication added little to treatment
neo-Kraepelinian revolution
when psychopathology started being viewed under scientific terms, led to DSM

opposed to psychoanalytic dominance

committed to principles of medicine, biological reductionism
kappa
measures if something is caused by chance or not. A kappa below .4 means it is likely chance, over .7 means likely not
DSM III
offered improved diagnostic reliability, multiaxial diagnostic procedure, diagnostic categories, larger and more comprehensive
DSM IV
more disorders, 16 diagnostic classes

organized by phenomenology, etiology, developmental onset

hierarchical classification
diagnosis
a judgement about disorders, application of the DSM IV criteria.

includes judgements about all axes at once
reliability
how consistently can professionals use the classification to correctly organize particular instances of the domain of interest?
coverage
how comprehensively the classification specifies the domain of interest (DSM inclused a NOS category)
diagnostic overlap
how precisely does the classification partition the domain of interest?
sources of variation that limit reliability
1. clinician variance
2. instrument variance
3. patient variance
4. method variance
5. disorder variance within single classification
validity
how persuasively does evidence support the classification in terms of its meaningfulness and utility?
content validity
does the disorder include the attributes and characteristics that are actually observed?
criterion validity
does the disorder correlate with relevant external variables?

examples: concurrent and predictive validity
concurrent validity
concerned with present time and with correlations between the disorder and other symptoms, circumstances, and test procedures

e.g. schizophrenia correlates with present drop in IQ
predictive validity
concerned with the future and with the stability of the problem over time

e.g. schizophrenia correlates with future suicide attempt
hypothetical construct
conceptual abstraction or postulated entity cast within a broader theoretical network
intervening variable
the measure of a hypothetical construct (e.g. vaginal congestion)
operational definition
specification of measures for intervening variables used to investigate hypothetical constructs (e.g. penile plethysmograph)
construct validity
the overall strength of the network of relations that have been observed among variables that are used to define a construct. The extent to which the construct possesses some systematic meaning.
construct validation
scientific efforts to assess the construct validity of a given hypothetical construct
inclusion
conditions that must be present for a positive diagnosis
exclusion
conditions that, if present, rule out a positive diagnosis
etiological validity
deals with what we know about a disorder prior to onset
artifactual comorbidity
only one disorder is present, but overlap makes it seem like more than one disorder is present
validation strategy: syndrome ID
systematic description (e.g. dementia praecox)
validation strategy; boundary ID
demonstrated distinctions (e.g. dementia praecox vs. manic-depression)
assessment procedures
1. interviews
2. observation
3. personality tests
4. self-report inventories
5. projective tests
6. psychophysiological tests
7. brain imaging
goal of construct validation
to identify the distinctive etiology or specific pathways and processes leading to PP