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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Socrates and plato's ideas
mind and body are distinct, some ideas are inborn
Aristotle's ideas
mind and body are connected,
mind is a blank slate
Augustine's ideas
mind and body are connected
Descartes's ideas
mind and body are distinct,
Bacon's ideas
the human understanding supposes a greater degree of order and equality in things than it really finds
Locke's ideas
The mind is a blank slate
empiricism
the view that(a) knoledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment
structuralism
and early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes funtion - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
definition of psychology
science of behavior and mental processes
kinds of behavior
overt - physical, can be observed by anyone
physiological responses - occur inside body
verbal - express mental processes
Intervening variables
can change within the organism, can't be measured directly
science
a way to learn new things
goal of science
description, prediction, control
epistemology
the study of knowledge, how it is aquired and used
empiricism
experience of the senses is teh only source of knowledge. sensory
examples of philosophical influences
british empiricism and associationism
philosophy
to understand human nature and mind, you have to know where knowledge comes from
British Empiricists
wanted to know how knowledge is aquired. John Locke - Tabula Rasa. Know nothing at birth, gain knowledge through experience
Aristotle's laws of Asssociation
Answers how is knowledge organized?
1. Similarity
2. contrast
3. contiguity
a. temporal
b. spatial
Early scientific influences
physics and sensory physiology
Helmholtz
physicist who uncovered information about light and sound energy. Interested in sensory physiology
psychophysics
the relationship between the subjective and the objective. mind and body. Weber and Fechner.
Philosophy, psychology and theological ideas about subjective and objective
phil - mind-body
psy - mind-brain
theol - soul-body
Weber's law
point where you identify a change in energy level - the JND
Early scientific influences
physics and sensory physiology
Helmholtz
physicist who uncovered information about light and sound energy. Interested in sensory physiology
psychophysics
the relationship between the subjective and the objective. mind and body
Philosophy, psychology and theological ideas about subjective and objective
phil - mind-body
psy - mind-brain
theol - soul-body
Weber's law
point where you identify a change in energy level - the JND
what did weber's law describe?
the relationship between the physical world and mental perception
sight is more sensitive than tast, so JND is...
smaller
Weber and Fechtner studied with ___ and read ____
helmholtz, british empiricists
Psychology's beginnings
1879. Wundt. Leipzig. Introspection. Used psychological techniques, but was the study of what is there in teh mind. contents of conciousness
Reductionism
breakdown and learn all you can about a substance and its structure, properties. introspection is a reductionistic technique.
What were the 3 early schools of psychology?
Structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism.
2 other psychology schools?
Gestalt psychology and psycholanalytic psychology
Structuralism
Used introspection to gather reports and find a structure or common theme throughout the streams of conciousness. Wundt and Titchener. answered...what?
Functionalism
We've found the structures, what are their functions?
Carr, Dewey, Angell, and W. James. most had been philosophers. influenced by Darwin. answered...what? why?
Behaviorism
1913. John B. Watson. Wanted to rid of structuralism and functionalism completely. Needed to be objective since brain is subjective. Studied behavior - objective psychology. Didn't need verbal report to study behavior. Genetics didn't matter, behavior comes completely from the environment. tabula rasa.
1960's
objective methods found to study mental processes. our definition of psychology. evolutionary perspective with new appreciation for genetics. watson's blank slate was wrong.
gestalt psychology
concerned with the way subject matter was studied. reductionism = bad. study the whole
psycholanalytic psychology
Freud. didn't care about previous methods. concerned with mental disease
specialty areas in modern psychology
I/O, human factors, testing, measurement, clinical, counseling, school/educational.
basic psychologists
experiment to learn new things and uncover new knowledge about behavior and mental processes.
Why a science of behavior and mental processes?
humand so not always think clearly, so we need to understand when we are rational/irrationial. objective empirical methods can help describe things accurately
Experimental concepts
1. discover known facts
2. Inductive reasoning that leads to a theory.
3. make a prediction based on a theory through deductive reasoning
inductive and deductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning leads to a theory. Deductive reasoning begins with a theory and leads to a hypothesis.
operational definitions
(paw-lick latency test)
Complete precise description of how to measure something, reliability, and validity
reliability and validity
Reliable doesn't mean valid, valid does mean reliable.
Empirical procedures
Clinical method (case history),survey, naturalistic observation, correlation, experimentation,
Clinical method
learn as much as possible about the subject. Usually devoted to unusual or strange cases. Helps us to think about what is normal by studying what is abnormal.
Survey
a questionnaire. Purpose is to learn something about a large group of people
naturalistic observations
observe organisms behavior in their natural environment
correlation
make predictions (unlike other previous methods)
experimentation
Take a sample from a population at random, split into a control and experimental group, apply independent variable, and examine dependent variable
purpose of an experiment
determines cause and effect
DV=f(IV)
Types of experiments
two group, multi group, between subjects or within subjects
between subjects
treat one animal in one condition only. split into control and experimental conditions and test only in their group
within subjects
test each animal in control and experimental conditions
theory
A framework for explaining a variety of related phenomena.
hypothesis
A prediction about a specific phenomenon that can be tested empirically
independent variable
An experimental condition or variable directly and independently controlled or manipulated by the experimenter so that its effects (if any) on the dependent variable can be measured. In an experiment, the I.V. is the treatment of interest.
dependent variable
The observed and expected behavioral change (the response) that is dependent upon changes resulting from manipulation of the independent variable (i.e., the D. V. response that is measured in research and which is predicted to be influenced by the independent variable)
intervening variable
An inferred variable or process existing within the organism but which cannot be observed directly; it is often a variable that comes between the experimenter's independent variable and the dependent variable; examples include emotions, intelligence, thinking.
operational definition
A description of an object or concept that specifies the manner by which the object or concept is actually measured (by describing the operations involved). One requirement of an operational definition is that it should explicitly state how a measurement is taken.
reliability
Dependability or "repeatability;" if a variable is constant over time, then a reliable measure of the variable will yield consistent values each time it it measured. Some variables (like hunger, mood) change over time, but some (like personality traits, intelligence) are relatively stable.
validity
the degree to which a test (or measure) actually measures what it was designed to measure; the "truthfulness" of a test, measure, or definition