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73 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Biological Psychology
Branch of psych. concerned with links between biology and behavior.
Neuron
a cell nerve that is the basic building block of the nervous system.
Dendite
Branchlike extentions of a neuron that braches out in fibers that recieve messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Axon
The extension of a neuron that branches out in fibers sending the message to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
Myelin Sheath
Layer of fatty tissure around the fibers of a neuron that allow the message to travel much faster.
Action Potential
a neural impulse; brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
Threshold
The level of stimulation needed to trigger a neural impulse.
Synapse
The gap between the neuron sending the message to the reciecing dendrite.
Charles Sherrington
Person who discovered and coined the synapse.
Acetycholine A.K.A. ACh
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction.
Endorphines
Natural opietelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure.
Candace Pert & Solomon Snyder
Scientists who discovered endorphines. ( Did so by giving radioactive morphine to animals to see where is was recepted to in the brain. )
Nervous System
The body electochemical communication network that consists of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
Central Nervous System A.K.A. CNS
Consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System A.K.A. PNS
Consists of the sensory and motor neurons that connect to the CNS to the rest of the body.
Nerves
neural "cables" containing many axons in bundles, which are part of the PNS, connect the CNS with muscles, glands and sense organs.
Sensory Neurons
Neurons that carry sense info. to the CNS from sense receptors.
Motor Neurons
Neurons that carry outgoing info. from the CNS to muscles and/or glands.
Interneurons
neurons in the CNS that interrnally communicate and intervene between the sensory outputs and motor inputs.
Somatic Nervous System
The division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System
Part of the PNS that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Division of the Autonomic Nervous System that arouses the body, mobilzes energy in stressful situations.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the Autonomic Nervous System that calms the body, conserving its energy.
Reflex
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus.
Neural Network
Interconnected neural cells that can learn feedback strengths to produce certain results.
Endocrine
A set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Hormones
Chemical messengers that are usually produced by the endocrine,that are made in one tissue that affect another.
Adrenal
Pair of glands above the kidneys that secrete the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norephrine (non-adrenaline), which helps arouse the body in times of stress.
Lesion
Destruction of tissue.
EEG (Electroencephalogram)
Amplified recordings of electrical waves in the brain. (Now we can see where certain info. is being stored and other activities)
PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography)
Visual display of the brain to see where a radioactive form of glucose goes when performing certain tasks.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Technique that uses magnetic fields and radiowaves to produce imaging of soft tissue and such. ** Shows the structure of the brain.**
fMRI (Functional MRI)
technique revealing blood flow. **Shows brain function**
Brainstem
Oldest part and central core of the brain which is responsible for automatic survival functions.
Medulla
Base of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing.
Reticular Formation
Nerve network in the brainstem that is an important role in controlling arousement.
Thalamus
Directs messeges to the sensory recieving areas in the cortex that transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
Cerebellum
"Little Brian" - Processes sensory input and coordinating movement output and balence.
Limbic System
doughnut-shaped form of neural structure in the brain that controls emotions such as fear and aggression. Also drives such as food and sex.
Amygdala
Two lima-bean sized structures that are components of the limbic system that are linked to emotion.
Heinrich Kluver & Paul BucyHy
Kluver(psychologist) and Bucy (neurosurgen) surgically lesioned the amygadala on an ill-tempered monkey resulting in a mellow,calm monkey.
Daniel Langleben
Discovered that the fMRI scans pick up brain activity in relation to when people are lying.
Hypothalamus
Lies below the thalamus in the brain and regulates the body's internal environmental state including: thirst, hunger, and body temperature.
Cerebal
Neural cells covering the cerebal hemisphere that is the body;s main information and processing center.
Glial Cells (Glia)
Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
Frontal Lobes
Majorly involved in speaking and muscle movements. Also, with making plans and judgement.
Parietal Lobes
Recieves sensory input for touch and body position.
Occipital Lobes
Recieve visual information.
Temporal Lobes
Recieve auditory information.
Motor Cortex
Controls voluntary movement.
Sensory Cortex
Registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
Association Area's
Involved with higher mental functions such as: learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
Aphasia
Impairment of language pending which hemisphere is damaged, either speaking or understanding.
Broca's Area
Area that controls language expression by directing muscle movement.
Neural Network
Interconnected neural cells that can learn feedback strengths to produce certain results.
Endocrine
A set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Hormones
Chemical messengers that are usually produced by the endocrine,that are made in one tissue that affect another.
Adrenal
Pair of glands above the kidneys that secrete the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norephrine (non-adrenaline), which helps arouse the body in times of stress.
Lesion
Destruction of tissue.
EEG (Electroencephalogram)
Amplified recordings of electrical waves in the brain. (Now we can see where certain info. is being stored and other activities)
PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography)
Visual display of the brain to see where a radioactive form of glucose goes when performing certain tasks.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Technique that uses magnetic fields and radiowaves to produce imaging of soft tissue and such. ** Shows the structure of the brain.**
fMRI (Functional MRI)
technique revealing blood flow. **Shows brain function**
Brainstem
Oldest part and central core of the brain which is responsible for automatic survival functions.
Medulla
Base of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing.
Reticular Formation
Nerve network in the brainstem that is an important role in controlling arousement.
Thalamus
Directs messeges to the sensory recieving areas in the cortex that transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
Cerebellum
"Little Brian" - Processes sensory input and coordinating movement output and balence.
Limbic System
doughnut-shaped form of neural structure in the brain that controls emotions such as fear and aggression. Also drives such as food and sex.
Wernickes Area
Area that controls language reception; also involved with language comprehension and expression.
Plasticity
The ability of the brain to be able to modify itself after damage. (Redirecting sensory nerves after losing a finger to other fingers) ( Blind people having better hearing)
Corpus Callosum
Large band of neural fibers that connect the 2 hemispheres of the brain and carry messages between them.
Split Brain
A condition where the 2 hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting of corpus callosum.