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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental process.
Aristotle
Psychology student of Socrates and Plato that discovered that the mind is one with the soul and grows from experiences.
Empiricism
The view that knowledge comes from experience to the senses.
Wilhem Wundt
German psychologist that performed the first of psychologies experiments and opened the 1st psychology lab.
Structuralism
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the mind.
Functionalism
A school of psychology that focused on how the mental and behavioral process works.
Humanistic Psychology
Significant perspective that stated the importance of growth potential of healthy people.
Nature-Nurture Issue
The longlasting argument that genes and the experience make the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Natureal Selection
"Only the strong survive." The principal that among the range of inherited trait variations, those who learn to reproduce and survive will pass the traits down to the next generation to come.
Levels of Analysis
the different ways to explain views from biological to psycholgogical to social-cultural for analyzing a phenonmenon. (Ex. Why do bears hibernate?)
Biopsychological Approach
The perspective that states that biological,psychological,and social-cultural levels of analysis. ( All 3 give you mental and behavioral process )
3 Types of Psychology
Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social-Cultural
Behavioral Psychology
Studies observable responses.
Cognitive Psychology
Studies how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information.
Social-Cultural Psychology
Studies behavior and thinking across various situations.
Basic Research
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
Applied Science
Scientific Study that aims to solve practical problems.
Counseling Psychology
Branch that focuses on assisting people with problems at school, work, and marraige for better well-being.
Clinical Psychology
Branch that studies, assess, and treats people with psychological disorders.
Psychiatry
Branch of medicine that deals with psychological disorders.
Highsight Bias
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one could have forseen. ( AKA I-knew-it-all-along-phenomenon AKA COMMON SENSE)
Critical Thinkin
thinking that requires deep thought and does not quickly accept the conclusion. It examines assumptions, hidden values, evaluates evidence and comes to multiple conclusions.
Theory
An explanation found due to a set of principals that organizes and predicts other observations
Hypothesis
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
Operational Definitions
A statement of operations used to define research variables. ( Human intelligence can be operationally defined by what an intelligence test measures )
Replication
Repeating a research experiment with different variables to see if the same basic findings are found.
Culture
The behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people that are passed down from one generation to the next.
Case Study
An observational technique where one person is studied in depth in hopes of revealing universal principals.
Survey
Technique for calculating self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people.
False Consensus Effect
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
Population
Group in which samples are drawn from.
Random Sample
the selection of someone of a population that guarentees each memeber has an equal chance.
Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior in the objects natural environment.
Correlation
A measure of two of more variables that directly effect eachother.
Scatterplot
Graphed cluster of dots; dots = 2 variables, Slope = realation to eachother, more dots suggest the strength of correlation
Illusionary Correlation
Assuming correlation exists when it really doesn't.
Experiment
Process of controlling one or more variables to observe mental and/or behavioral process.
Double-blind Procedure
Process where neither the host nor participant knows who recieved the placebo.
Placebo-Effect
Experimental results caused by the hosts expectations.
Experimental Group
Group in which is not being given the variable, just there to gather natural data.
Controlled Group
Group in which is given the variable and is there to gather the effects of it.
Random Assignment
Randomly picking groups/persons to exclude bias results.
Independant Variable
the variable whose effect is being studied
Dependant Variable
The variable that may change due to the independent variable.
Mode
Most often number.
Mean
Average of numbers.
Meadian
Middle number.
Range
Difference between the high and the low.
Outlier
Number that is way higher/lower than the rest.
Standard Deviation
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
Statistical Significants
Statistical statement of how likely an obtained result may occur.