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33 Cards in this Set

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LEARNING 260
ANY RELATIVELY PERMANENT CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR THAT CAN BE ATTRIBUTED TO EXPERIENCE.
EXCLUDES TEMPORARY CHANGES CAUSED BY MOTIVATION, FATIGUE, MATURATIONS, DISEASE, INJURY, OR DRUGS. EACH CAN ALTER BEHAVIOR BUT NONE QUALIFY AS LEARNING.
REINFORCEMENT 260
ANY EVENT THAT INCREASES THE PROBABILITY THAT A PARTICULAR RESPONSE WILL OCCUR.
A RESPONSE IS ANY BEHAVIOR. RESPONSES MAY BE OBSERVABLE ACTIONS, SUCH AS BLINKING, EATING A PIECE OF CANDY, OR TURNING A DOORKNOB. THEY CAN ALSO BE INTERNAL, SUCH AS HAVING A FASTER HEARTBEAT.
ANTECEDENTS 260
EVENTS THAT PRECEDE A RESPONSE.
WHEN A THREE YEAR OLD HEARS A TRUCK PULL INTO THE GARAGE SHE KNOWS DADDY IS HOME WHERE SHE THEN RUNS TO THE FRONT DOOR WHERE SHE GETS A HUG FROM HER FATHER.
CONSEQUENCES 260
EFFECTS THAT FOLLOW A RESPONSE.
A THREE YEAR OLD RECEIVING A HUG AT THE DOOR REINFORCES HER TENDENCY TO RUN TO THE FRONT DOOR.
REFLEX 260
AUTOMATIC, NON-LEARNED RESPONSE.
AIR PUFF TO THE EYE WILL MAKE YOU BLINK EVERY TIME. THE EYE BLINK IS AN AUTOMATIC REFLEX.
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 260
A FORM OF LEARNING IN WHICH REFLEX RESPONSES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH NEW STIMULI.
AN ANTECEDENT STIMULUS THAT DOESN’T PRODUCE A RESPONSE IS LINKED WITH ONE THAT DOES
OPERANT CONDITIONING 260
LEARNING BASED ON CONSEQUENCES OF RESPONDING
A RESPONSE MAY BE FOLLOWED BY A REIN FORCER SUCH AS FOOD, OR BY PUNISHMENT OR EVEN NOTHING. THESE RESULTS DETERMINE IF RESPONSE IS MADE AGAIN.
PAVLOV CONDITIONING 261
ANIMALS SALIVATING AT THE MERE SIGHT OF FOOD - SOME TYPE OF LEARNING HAD OCCURRED.
PAVLOV THEN RANG A BELL BEFORE BRING OUT FOOD AND DID THIS A NUMBER OF TIMES. EVENTUALLY THE ANIMALS SALIVATED AT THE SOUND OF THE BELL.
NEUTRAL STIMULUS (NS) 261
A STIMULUS THAT DOES NOT EVOKE A RESPONSE
THE BELL STARTS OUT AS A NEUTRAL STIMULUS
CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS) 261
A STIMULUS THAT EVOKES A RESPONSE BECAUSE IT HAS BEEN REPEATEDLY PAIRED WITH AN UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS
IN TIME THE BELL BECOMES A CONDITIONED STIMULUS. A STIMULUS, THAT BECAUSE OF LEARNING WILL ELICIT A RESPONSE.
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (US) 261
A STIMULUS INNATELY CAPABLE OF ELICITING A RESPONSE
THE MEAT POWDER IS AN EXAMPLE OF THIS.
UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UR) 261
AN INNATE REFLEX RESPONSE ELICITED BY AN UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS.
"INNATE" - BUILT IN. NON LEARNED, REFLEXED SALVATION WAS THE UR IN PAVLOV'S EXPERIMENT
CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR) 261
A LEARNED RESPONSE ELICITED BY A CONDITIONED STIMULUS.
SALVATION
ACQUISITION 262
THE PERIOD IN CONDITIONING DURING WHICH A RESPONSE IS REINFORCED.
RESPONSE IS STRENGTHENED
IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING REINFORCEMENT 262
WHEN CONDITIONED STIMULUS IS FOLLOWED BY, OR PAIRED WITH AN UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS.
FOR OUR CHILD THE BELL IS THE CONDITIONED RESPONSE, SALIVATING IS THE UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE, AND SOUR LEMON JUICE IS UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS.
HIGHER ORDER CONDITIONING 262
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IN WHICH A CONDITIONED STIMULUS IS USED TO REINFORCE FURTHER LEARNING; THAT IS, A CONDITIONED STIMULUS IS USED AS IF IT WERE A UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS.
TO GO A STEP FURTHER THAN JUST THE BELL YOU COULD CLAP YOUR HANDS, RING THE BELL AND THEN BRING IN THE LEMON JUICE.
EXTINCTION 263
THE WEAKENING OF A CONDITIONED RESPONSE THROUGH REMOVAL OF REINFORCEMENT
REMOVING REINFORCEMENT WEAKENS CLASSICAL CONDITIONING.
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY 263
THE REAPPEARANCE OF A LEARNED RESPONSE AFTER ITS APPARENT EXTINCTION
THIS EXPLAINS WHY PEOPLE WHO HAVE HAD CAR ACCIDENTS MAY NEED MANY SLOW, CALM RIDES BEFORE THEIR FEAR OF DRIVING EXTINGUISHES.
STIMULUS GENERALIZATION 263
THE TENDENCY TO RESPOND TO STIMULI SIMILAR TO, BUT NOT IDENTICAL TO, A CONDITIONED STIMULUS.
MAY SALIVATE TO THE SOUND OF A RINGING TELEPHONE OR DOOR BELL, EVEN THOUGH THEY WERE NEVER USED AS A CONDITIONING STIMULI.
STIMULUS DESCRIPTION 264
THE LEARNED ABILITY TO RESPOND DIFFERENTLY TO SIMILAR STIMULI.
MOST CHILDREN QUICKLY LEARN TO DISCRIMINATE VOICE QUALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH PAIN FROM THOSE LINKED WITH PRAISE OR AFFECTION.
PHOBIA 265
A FEAR THAT PERSISTS EVEN WHEN NO REALISTIC DANGER EXISTS.
FEARS OF ANIMALS, WATER, HEIGHTS, THUNDER, FIRE, BUGS, ELEVATORS, AND THE LIKE ARE COMMON.
CONDITIONED EMOTIONAL RESPONSE 265
AN EMOTIONAL RESPONSE THAT HAS BEEN LINKED TO A PREVIOUSLY NON-EMOTIONAL STIMULUS BY CLASSICAL CONDITIONING.
PEOPLE WHO HAVE PHOBIAS CAN OFTEN TRACE THEIR FEARS TO A TIME WHEN THEY WERE FRIGHTENED, INJURED, OR UPSET BY A PARTICULAR STIMULUS.
DESENSITIZATION 265
THERAPY DONE TO EXTINGUISH FEARS, ANXIETIES, AND PHOBIAS
THIS IS DONE BY GRADUALLY EXPOSING THE PHOBIC PERSON TO FEARED STIMULI WHILE SHE OR HE REMAINS CALM AND RELAXED.
VARIOUS CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 265
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING BROUGHT ABOUT BY OBSERVING ANOTHER PERSON REACT TO A PARTICULAR STIMULUS
"SECONDHAND" LEARNING AFFECTS FEELINGS IN MANY SITUATIONS.
LAW OF EFFECT & OPERANT CONDITIONING 268
LEARNING BASED ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF RESPONDING. RESPONSES THAT LEAD TO DESIRABLE EFFECTS ARE REPEATED; THOSE THAT PRODUCE UNDESIRABLE RESULTS ARE NOT.
THE PROBABILITY OF A RESPONSE IS ALTERED BY THE EFFECT IT HAS. LEARNING IS STRENGTHENED EACH TIME A RESPONSE IS FOLLOWED BY A SATISFYING SATE OF AFFAIRS.
OPERANT REIN FORCER VS. REWARD 268
ANY EVENT THAT FOLLOWS A RESPONSE AND INCREASES ITS PROBABILITY
REWARDS DO NOT ALWAYS ENCOURAGE A "GOOD" BEHAVIOR. IT WILL ONLY WORK IF THE REWARD IS AN ITEM THAT IS REWARDING TO THE OBJECT.
EXPECTANCIES/ INFORMATION 269
WE LEARN TO EXPECT THAT A CERTAIN RESPONSE WILL HAVE A CERTAIN EFFECT AT CERTAIN TIMES.
WE LEARN THAT A PARTICULAR STIMULUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR RESPONSE THAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH REINFORCEMENT.
DELAY OF REINFORCEMENT 269 - 270
RESPONSE ONLY AFTER A DESIRED RESPONSE HAS OCCURRED.
IF CHILD RECEIVED REINFORCES HAPHAZARDLY, HIS BEHAVIOR WOULDN'T HAVE CHANGED AT ALL.
TIMING CONTINGENT REINFORCEMENT 270
REINFORCEMENT IS MOST SUCCESSFUL WHEN A RESPONSE IS IMMEDIATELY AFTER RESPONSE YOU WISH TO CHANGE.
A CHILD WHO IS HELPFUL OR COURTEOUS SHOULD BE PRAISED IMMEDIATELY FOR HER GOOD BEHAVIOR.
RESPONSE CHAIN 270
A LINKED SERIES OF ACTIONS THAT LEAD TO REINFORCEMENT
THE LONG SERIES OF EVENTS NECESSARY TO PREPARE A MEAL IS REWARDED BY THE FINAL EATING.
SUPERSTITION BEHAVIORS 270
A BEHAVIOR REPEATED BECAUSE IT SEEMS TO PRODUCE REINFORCEMENT, EVEN THOUGH IT IS ACTUALLY UNNECESSARY.
IF YOU GET A LARGE HALF OF A WISH BONE AND HAVE GOOD FORTUNE SOON AFTER, YOU MAY CREDIT YOUR LUCK TO THE WISHBONE.
SHAPING/ SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATIONS 270 - 271
GRADUAL MOLDING OF RESPONSES TO A DESIRED PATTERN, GRADUALLY TRAIN TO A EVER-CLOSER MATCHES.
TO SHAPE A RAT TO PRESS A BAR, SHAPE HIM TO FACE THE BAR WITH REWARDS, THEN TO COME NEAR THE BAR, AND EVENTUALLY PRESS IT.
OPERANT EXTINCTION 271
THE WEAKENING OF A DISAPPEARANCE OF A NON- REINFORCED OPERANT RESPONSE.
ACQUIRING AN OPERANT RESPONSE TAKES TIME, SO DOES EXTINCTION.