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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Memory
Persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Flashbulb memories
Clear memory of an emotionally significant event.
Encoding
Processing of information, getting info. into the brain.
Storage
Retention of encoded information
Retrieval
Getting info. out of storage.
Sensory Memory
Immediate, initial memory of sensory information.
Short-Term Memory
Holds a few items briefly (like a phone number).
Long-Term Memory
Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of memory.
Spacing Effect
Learn better when rehearsal is spaced over time.
Serial Postion Effect
When given a list of words you remember the first few and the last few.
Which is learned better, Visual, acoustic, or semantic encoding?
Semantic encoding, because we remeber best when we apply meaning to the word.
Chunking
More easily recall information you can organize into meaninful units.
Where is memory stored?
No particular part of the brain....all spread out.
Is stress a factor in memory?
Yes, we remember better when we are stressed.
Recall
must retrieve learning from earlier (fill in the blank)
Recognition
Need to identify items previously learned (multiple choice)
Relearning
Amount of time saved when you learn information for a second time.
Priming
Activation of memory using association.
Deja Vu
We can see similar things to other situations and feel as though we have been in this situation before.
Mood congruent
When sad, remember sad times. (based on emotion)
Encoding Failure
Never enters long-term memory (due to attention focus)
Storage Decay
Gradual fading of memory trace
Retreival Failure
Inaccessible information
Proactive inference
Early learning disrupts later info.
Retroactive inference
Later learning disrupts earlier info.
Concepts
Mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
Prototype
Best example of a category (what comes to mind when you think of a chair, driver, bird, etc)
Algorithm
Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving but takes longer and very tedious. (Takes longer, less errors)
Heuristic
Thinking strategy that allows us to make judgements and solve problems. (Faster but error prone)
Insight
Sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. "AHA" moment.
Confirmation bias
We search for information that confirms our beliefs.
Fixation
Inability to see a problem from a new perspective.
Mental Set
Predisposes how we think.
Functional Fixedness
Think of things only in usual purpose.
Representative Heuristic
Judge likelihood based on how well it fits prototype.
Availability Heuristic
Likelihood based on availability in memory.
Framing
Way an issue posed affects decisions.
Belief Bias
Pre-existing beliefs distort logical reasoning.
Belief Perseverance
Cling to initial belief when bias for belief is discredited.
Language
Spoken, written, or signed words and combining them to communicate.
Phonemes
Smallest distinctive sound unit. Chat -- Ch-a-t
Morpheme
Smallest unit that carries meaning. Pre- , -ed
Grammer
System of rules enables us to communicate with others.
Semantics
Study of meaning.
Syntax
Combining words into grammatically sensible sentances.
Operant Learning
Associations, imitation, and reinforcement drives language acquisition.
Inborn Universial Grammer
Helping flower to grow in its own way, all language have same building blocks (nouns, verbs, etc).
Statistical learning
Gradual neural connections based on experience.
Linguistic Determination
Language determines the way we think.
Thinking without language
Can do mental practice, power of imagery
Intelligence
Ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations.
Intelligence Tests
Assessing mental aptitude and compare with others.
Factor Analysis
Statistical procedure identifies clusters of items.
Savant Syndrome
Person with limited mental ability has exceptional specific skill.
Emotional Intelligence
Ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions.
Aptitude test
Predict future performance.
Achievement test
Assess what you have learned.
Reliability
Will test give consistent results?
Validity
Does test measure what it is?
Motivation
Need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
Instinct
Complex behavior patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
Evolutionary Psychology
Genetic blueprint explains dispostion for behaviors.
Drive Reduction Theory
Physiological need leads to aroused state which drives us to behavior. (aim is homeostasis)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Actualization
Esteem
Belongingness
Safety
Physiological Needs
Set Point Theory
We keep around the same weight-why diet effects are short-lived.
Social Cues
lunch or dinner time will puch hunger
I/O Psychology
Using psychological concepts to optimize workplaces.
Personnel Psychology
Employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
Organizational Psychology
Pushes organization to provide work satisfaction and productivity.
Interviewer Illusion
We overestimate our "gut instinct".
Halo Effect
If I think you are nice I'll also think you're smart (ability in one area influences how you rank other areas)
Structured Interview
Same questions, established scoring
James-Lang theory
Separate physiological activity for each emotion.
Cannon-Bard Theory
Emotion and physiology happens at same time
Schachter's Two-Factor Theory
To experience emotion, must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal. (physiology happens and interpret environment for emotion)
Sympathetic Nervous system
body's fight or flight response.
Parasynpathetic Nervous system
Calming equilibrium