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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon
Forgotten information feels just out of reach
Encoding
forming a memory code
Storage
maintaining encoded information over time
Retrieval
Recovering information from memory stores
Next-in-line effect
Being so preoccupied with what you're saying next to pay attention to what the person ahead of you is saying
Structural Encoding
emphasizes the PHYSICAL structure of the word (ie is it capital letters)
Phonemic Encoding
emphasizes the SOUND of word (does it rhyme)
Semantic Encoding
emphasizes the meaning of verbal input (construct a sentence)
Dual-Coding Theory
Holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall; two codes are better than one
Encoding Enrichment Methods
Elaboration, Visual imagery, Self-Referent Encoding
Self-Referent Encoding
Making information personally meaningful to enhance recall
Short term memory
limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to 20 seconds
George Miller
Magic Number 7, Plus or Minus 2; capacity of short term memory storage; any new info past the capacity would bump out current information
Working Memory
Phonological Loop --> Visuospatial Sketchpad --> Central Executive System --> Episodic Buffer
Schema
organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with object/event; ie rooms you've been in
Semantic Networks
consists of nodes representing concepts, joined by pathways that link related concepts, webs
Spreading Activation (Semantic Network)
when one word/idea triggers thoughts of related, connected ideas within the network
Parallel Distributed Processing Models
assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks resembling neural networks (terms of excitatory, inhibitory signals)--> each piece of knowledge is represented by a PATTERN of connections in the network, not just each node.
Misinformation Effect
participants' recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading postevent information
Imagination Inflation
Planting vivid imaginations of their past to increase belief they had actually experienced it
Source Monitoring
involves making attributions about the origins of memories (source)
Source Monitoring Error
memory derived from once source is misattributed to another (citing the wrong source)
Reality Monitoring
process of deciding whether memories are based on perception of actual events or imagination
Forgetting Curve
by Ebbinghaus; shows a HUGE drop in retention in the first HOUR after learning new material, then it slowly levels off
Recall
measure of retention requiring reproducing information without cues
Recognition
requiring selection of previously learned material from some options
Relearning
requiring re-memorization to see how much time or how many practice trials are SAVED by already learning it
Decay Theory
forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time
Interference
people forget information because of competition from other material
Retroactive Interference
new information impairs retention of previously learned information
Proactive Interference
when previously learned information interferes with retention of new information
Encoding Specificity Principle
value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code, making retrieval success inconsistent
Transfer-Appropriate Processing
when initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention
Retrograde Amnesia
loss of memories for events that occurred PRIOR to amnesia
Anterograde Amnesia
involves loss of memories for events that occur AFTER amnesia
Medial Temporal Lobe Memory System
hippocampal region, including the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum, etc; plays a key role in consolidation of memories
Consolidation
a hypothetical process involving gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long-term memory
Declarative Memory System
handles factual information
Procedural, Non-Declarative Memory System
memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses, emotional responses; less vulnerable to forgetting
Semantic Memory
contains general knowledge not tied to the time where it was learned (ie that xmas is December 25th, what dogs look like)
Episodic Memory
also part of declarative memory; made up of chronological, or temporally dated recollections of experiences
Prospective Memory
remembering to perform actions in the future
Retrospective Memory
remembering events from the past or previously learned information
Event-based tasks
involves future actions triggered by a cue (pills with meals)
Time-based Tasks
times are the cue for actions
iconic memory
visual memory
echoic memory
auditory memory
Primacy effect
remember the first rather than the last, most common
Recency Effect
Remember more recent items
Normative Approach
asks, in a given situation, how should we behave? Rational thing to do; social sciences
Descriptive Approach
what do people REALLY do, and how & where does that deviate?
State Space
Problem Solving; nodes that represent each state of problem (every logical configuration in one network), and their connections (if it's possible to get from one node to another, then you can connect them); solving problems are when you get through that space on a path; steps initial, goal, current
Language
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining said symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages
Linguistic Relativity
one's language determines the nature of one's thought
Additive Strategy in Decision Making
list all the attributes that influence his decision, rating each attribute
Conjunction Fallacy
occurs when people estimate the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than odds of either happening alone
Alternative Outcomes Effect
when people's belief about whether an outcome will occur changes depending how other alternative outcomes are distributed even though the summed probably of the alternative outcomes are held constant
Gambler's Fallacy
belief that the odds of a chance event increase if the event hasn't occurred recently
Overestimating the Improbable
overestimating the choices of heavy media coverage
Semantic Slanting
deliberately choosing words to create specific emotional responses (pro choice)
Development
sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progression from conception to death
Zygote
one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
Prenatal Period
extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing 9 months of pregnancy
Germinal Stage
first phase of prenatal development, first 2 weeks after conception
Begins at fertilization; rapid cell division, implant into uterus, begins Placenta
Placenta
structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother
Embryonic Stage
2nd stage of prenatal development, 2 weeks - 3rd month
Organs and body systems form in the embryo; SUPER VULNERABLE
Fetal Stage
3rd stage of prenatal development, 2 months - birth; rapid growth, physical movement capabilities, function of organs
Cephalocaudal Trend
children gain control of upper body before lower (crawling before walking)
Proximodistal Trend
center-outward direction of motor development (torso before extremities)
Stage
developmental period where characteristic patterns of behavior revealed and certain capacities are established
Erikson's Stages
Trust/Mistrust
Autonomy/Shame&Doubt
Initiative/Guilt
Industry/Inferiority
Identity/Confusion
Intimacy/Isolation
Generativity/self-absorption
Integrity/Despair
Trust/Mistrust stage of Erikson's Theory
Is my world predictable and supportive?
Autonomy/Shame&Doubt stage of Erikson's Theory
Am I good or bad?
Industry/Inferiority stage of Erikson's Theory
Am i competent or worthless?
Identity/Confusion stage of Erikson's Theory
Who am I and where am I going?
Intimacy/Isolation stage of Erikson's Theory
Shall I share my life with someone or live alone?
Generativity/Self Absorption stage of Erikson's Theory
Will I produce something of value?
Integrity/Despair stage of Erikson's Theory
Have I lived a full life?
Cognitive Development
transitions in youngs patterns of thinking (reasoning, remembering, problem solving), Jean Piaget
Piaget's Stage Theory
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational stages
Assimilation
interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them
Accomodation
changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences
Sensorimotor stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development
(birth-2) developing ability to coordinate sensory input to motor actions; often results in repetition of pleasurable responses; gradual appearance of symbolic thought from innate reflexes-
Object Permanence: knowing something exists though not visible
Preoperational stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development
(2-7) development of symbolic thought marked by irreversibility (inability to reverse an action), centration (tendency to focus on ONE feature of a problem, not other aspects) and egocentrism (can't share another's viewpoint), animism (giving life to everything); don't have sense of conservation (ie volume)
Concrete Operational stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development
(7-11) mental operations applied to concrete events; finally learn to reverse and master decentration; mastery of conservation, hierarchal classification; develop new problem-solving capacities
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
Child's cognitive development is fueled by interactions with elders --> apprenticeship
Cognitive development is greatly affected by cultures
Language acquisition is a HUGE part of fostering cognitive development
Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky)
gap between what a learner can accomplish alone and what he can achieve with guidance
Scaffolding (Vygotsky)
occurs when assistance to a child is adjusted as learning progresses (decreases as progress continues)
Habituation
gradual reduction in the strength of a response when a stimulus event is presented repeatedly
Dishabituation
if new stimulus elicits increase in strength of a habituated respnse
Kohlberg's Stage Theory of Moral Development
Preconventional, Conventional, Postconventional Levels; tied very much to cognitive development
Preconventional Stage of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
think of external authority; follow rules to avoid punishment; like PREOPERATIONAL stage for Piaget
Conventional Stage of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
rules are necessary for social order; win approval from others, concrete operational
Postconventional Stage of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
working outside of personal code of ethics, can make exceptions for greater good