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### 30 Cards in this Set

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 Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind. Availability heuristic The idea that people tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus on only a few facets of available options and often result in “irrational” decisions that are less than optimal. See Theory of bounded rationality. Bounded rationality An error that occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone. Conjunction fallacy Narrowing down a list of alternatives to converge on a single correct answer. Convergent thinking A numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables. Correlation coefficient The generation of ideas that are original, novel, and useful. Creativity The process of evaluating alternatives and making choices among them. Decision making Scores that locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using the standard deviation as the unit of measurement. Deviation IQ scores Trying to expand the range of alternatives by generating many possible solutions. Divergent thinking The tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use. Functional fixedness The belief that the odds of a chance event increase if the event hasn’t occurred recently. Gambler’s fallacy An estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance. Heritability ratio A strategy, guiding principle, or rule of thumb used in solving problems or making decisions. Heuristic A problem-solving approach that entails selecting the alternative at each choice point that appears to lead most directly to one’s goal. Hill-climbling heuristic In problem solving, the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error. Insight A child’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100. Intelligence quotient (IQ) In intelligence testing, a score that indicates that a child displays the mental ability typical of a child of that chronological (actual) age. Mental age Persisting in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past. Mental set A symmetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population. Normal distribution A figure that indicates the percentage of people who score below the score one has obtained. Percentile score The reasons presented to persuade someone that a conclusion is true or probably true. Premises Active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily available. Problem solving Genetically determined limits on IQ or other traits. Reaction range Giving an abstract concept a name and then treating it as though it were a concrete, tangible object. Reification The measurement consistency of a test (or of other kinds of measurement techniques). Reliability Basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event. Representativeness heuristic Making choices under conditions of uncertainty. Risky decision making The idea that people tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus on only a few facets of available options and often result in “irrational” decisions that are less than optimal. Theory of bounded rationality Trying possible solutions sequentially and discarding those that are in error until one works. Trial and error The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure. Validity