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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Psychology?
The science of mental processes and behavior.
Mental Processes
What the brain does when a person stores, recalls, uses information, or has specific feelings.
LEVELS OF ANALYSIS:
Level of the Brain
focuses on relatively small things. Not only activity, but structure and properties of organs itself; brain cells and their connections, the way hormones alter how the brain operates, genes, hear, and understand a lecture, concentrate, design.
LEVELS OF ANALYSIS:
Level of the Person
his/her beliefs, desires, and feelings.
LEVELS OF ANALYSIS:
Level of the Group
The collection on people; relationships, culture, the things that irritate people because of other people (influences), temperature, time, and physical stimuli.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Founder of scientific osychology. Set up the first pstchologic laboratory. His work led to Structuralism. They sought to identify the "building blocks" of consciousness.
1st test- sence organs (eyes, ears)
2nd test- fear , anger, love.
Structuralism
determines how sensations and feelings would occur at the same time.
Introspection
noticing mental processes as, or immediately after, they occur.
Gestalt Psychology
The whole is more than the sum of its parts
Psychodynamic Theory (Freud)
(psycho- mind; dynamic- power)
How thoughts and feelings affect behavior. Push- and- Pull
Behavorism
Focuses on how specific a stimulus evokes a specific responce. (does the woman love the dog, or is that what she's supposed to do?)
Humanistic Psychology
assumes that people have positive valuse, free will, and deep inner creativity; the combination that leads to life- fulfilling paths to personal growth.
Clinical neuropsychologists
clinical psychologists who work specifically with tests designed to diagnose the effects of brain damage on thoughts, feelings, behavior, and to indicate which parts of the brain are impaired following trauma.
Social Psychology
how people feel and think about themselves and other people; how groups function.
Sport psychology
applies psychology to improve athletic performance.
Imformed consent
requirement that a potential participant in a study be told what he or she will be asked to do and be advised of possible risks and benefits of the study before agreeing to take part.
ETHNICAL GUIDELINES:
Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
"psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm... because psychologists, scientific and professional judgements and actions may affect the lives of others, they are alert to and guard against personal, financial, social, organizational, or political factors that might lead to misuse of thier influence."
ETHNICAL GUIDELINES:
Fidelity and responsibility
"psychologists uphold professional standards of conduct, clarify their professional roles and obligations, accept approprate responsibilities for their behavior, and seek to manage conflicts of interest that could lead to exploitation or harm."
ETHNICAL GUIDELINES:
Integrity
"Psychologists seek to promost accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness in the science, teaching, and practice of psychology. IN these activities, psychologists do not steal, cheat, or engage in fraud, subturfuge, or intentional misrepresentation or fact. Psychologists strive to keep their promises and to avoid unwise or unclear commitments."
ETHNICAL GUIDELINES:
Justice
"psychologists regonize that fairness and justice antitle all persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of psychology and to equal in the process, procedures, and services being conducted by psychologists."
ETHNICAL GUIDELINES:
Respect for people's rights and dignity
"psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all people, and the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiallity, and self- determination. Psychologists are aware of and respect culture, individual. and role differences, including those based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, and socioeconomic status and consider these factors when working with members or such groups."
NEURONS
Basic unit of the nervous system
call that reveives signals from other neurons or senses or sense organs, processes these signals, and sends the signals to other neurons, including muscles, or bodily organs.
THREE TYPES OF NEURONS:
Sensory neurons
respont to input from the sences.
THREE TYPES OF NEURONS:
Motor neurons
sends signals to muscle to control movement.
THREE TYPES OF NEURONS:
Inter neurons
connects neurons to other neurons- registers what's out there; most of the neurons in the brain are Inter Neurons.
Axons
the sending end of the neuron; long cable- extending from the cell body.
Dendrites
receives messages from the axons of other neurons; twiggy part.
Neurotransmitters
chemical the sends signals from the terminal buttons on one neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another.
Diseases Associated With Neurotransmitters:
DOPAMINE
parkinsons, depression, agression, schizophrenia
Diseases associates with Neurotransmitters:
EDDOGENOUS CANNABINOIDS
chronic pain, memory loss and attention problems, eating disorders, schizophrenia
Synapse Cleft
The gap between the axon of one neuron and the menbrane of another, across which communication occurs.
Serotonin
Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter regulating mood, sleep
Reuptake
surplus neurotransmitter is reabsorbed back into the sending neuron so that the neuron can effectivly fire again.
Parkinson's Disease
connection between brain and the change in behavior; shakey and slugglish- movement, stooped posture, shuffling walk,frozen limbs, cells that produce neurotransmitter, dopimine, have died.
Sympethetic Nervous System
part of the Autonomic NS that readies an animal to fight or flee by speeding up the heart, increasing breathing rate to deliver more oxygen, dilating the pupils, producing sweat, decreasing salvation, inhibiting activity in the stomach, and relaxing the bladder.
Parasympethetic Nervous System
part of the ANS that's next to the sympethetic NS, and tends to counteract its effects.
Corpus Collosum
The huge band of nerve fibers that connects the two halves of the brain.
Meninges
three protective layered membranes that cover the brain.
Phineas Gage (late 19th century)
Damaged his frontal lobes by, when packing blasting powder into a hole in a rock, his metal bar he was useing to pack it in hit the rock, which created a spark, which set off the powder, which went right through the front part of his head, flew high in the air, and landed about 30 meters behind him. He lived, but was a changed man, different personallity, different language, little self- control, couldn't stick to any decision.
Split- Brain Patients
Person whose corpus callosum has been severed for medical reasons, so that neuronal impulses no longer pass from one hemisphere to the other.
Perception
Organized and interpreted the sensory input as signaling a particular object or event.
Sensation
awareness of properties of an object or event that occurs when a type of receptor (such as those at the back of the eye, in the ear, on the skin) is stimulated.
Absolute Threshold
smallest amount of stimulus needes in order to detect that the stumulus is present. (the smallest amount of light won't be noticed.)
Transduction
where physical light is converted by a sensory neuron into neural impulses.
Color Vision
Hue- tells if it's red, blue, yellow, and so on.
Saturation- the perception of lightness.
Brightness- how much light is present.
Cones
Retinal cells that respond most strongly to one of three wavelenghts of light and that play a key role in producing color vision.
Afterimage
The image left behind by a previous perception. (the flag)
GESTALT LAWS:
good form
marks that form a single shape tend to be grouped together. ex: we see [] grouped together, but not [_.
GESTALT LAWS:
continunity
marks that tend to fall alone a straight line or smooth surve tend to be grouped together. ex: we see _ _ _ _ as a single line, not four seperate dashes, and we see
_ _ _ - - - as two seperate lines.
GESTALT LAWS:
similarity
marks that look alike tend to be grouped together. we see XXXxxx as two groups.
GESTALT LAWS:
closure
we tend to close any gaps in a figure, so a circle with a small missing section would still be seen as a circle.
GESTALT LAWS:
proximity
marks that are near one another and tend to be grouped together. ex: XXX XXX, and XX XX XX
TYPES OF DEAFNESS AND CAUSES:
nerve deafness
occurs when cell hairs are destroyed by loud sounds.
TYPES OF DEAFNESS AND CAUSES:
conduction deafness
caused by physical impairment of the external or middle ear.
SUBLIMINAL MESSAGES AND LEARNING:
Hearing without notice.