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92 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Which reinforcement is most resistant to extinction?
Partial Reinforcement
Which Schedule is based on a specified number of desired responses
Ratio Schedule
What Partial Reinforcement Schedule is Based on Time?
Interval Schedules
If a rat receives reinforcement once every 10th bar press it is on a
Fixed ratio Schedule
Which intervals produce a scalloped pattern on the graph of cumulative responses?
Fixed Interval Schedules
If you took a study break after approximately an hour of studying, but sometimes after 45 minutes, sometimes after an hour and 15 minutes, sometimes after half an hour, sometimes after an hour and a half, the average would be every hour, and so you would be on a variable interval 60-minute schedule.
Variable Interval Schedule
If a rat receives a pellet once every 10 min. then it is on a?
Fixed Interval Schedule
every 10 minutes.
What is often called the “gambling reinforcement schedule?
Variable Ratio Schedule
What Method decreases the chance that a behavior will occur?
I spank you because you swear, you decrease the amount that you swear
What Increases the Chances of a behavior occurring?
Positive and negative reinforcement
I give you candy when you behave, you behave more often
I shock you every time you press the wrong bar, you begin to press the right bar
Which law say marks that are near one another tend to be grouped together
Gestalt Law of Proximity
we see XX XX as two groups and we see XX XX XX as three groups
What law do we group things that fall along a smooth curve or a straight line together
Law of Continuity
we see _ _ _ as a single line
In which laws do we tend to close gaps ?
Law of Closure
Law that says that a single shape is grouped together?
Good form
What is it called when the items you see look the same even though the sensory images striking the eyes may change?
Perceptual constancy
When you see an object as the same size even when it is at different distances, so that its image has different sizes
Size Constancy
Colors remain the same even when the light changes?
Color constancy
When an objects shape looks the same from different angles?
Shape Constancy
What do you call the difference between the images on 2 eyes?
Retinal Disparity
Texture gradient is what type of cue?
Monocular cue
What is the name of the senses that perceive the body and its position in space (kinesthetic sense, vestibular sense, tuch, temperature sensitivity etc. called?
Somasthetic Senses
what is a sense of balance?
Vestibular Sense
Awareness of where the limbs are and how they move
Kinesthetic Sense
Which two specializes cells have kinesthetic sense?
Tendons (the material that connects muscles to bones)
The inner ear is used for hearing and?
What’s your body’s largest organ?
the skin
Inability to feel pain is worse then the inability to ?
Smell Odors
What is the name for The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
contains the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
Inner ear
___ refers to the height of the peaks in a light wave.
Your ___ is (are) a sheet of tissue at the back of your eye.
___ refers to how deep a color appears.
___ allows you to pick out a particular characteristic, object, or event.
Selective Attention
Theory that different colors can inhibit perception of other colors
Opponent Process Theory
Variations in frequency are called?
Variations in amplitude are called?
2 chemical senses that detect teh presence of particlar molecules
Smell and Taste
Influences emotional reactions and sexual behavior
Shorter waves correspond to?
Higher Frequencies
What part of the eye gives us the sharpest images?
There are No Rods and Cones present in this part of your eye
Blind Spot
What chemical responds to light
In which law do we tend to group marks that look alike together XXXxxx as 2 groups
Law of Similarity
What creates the illusion of distance
Monocular/static cues
Sometimes triggers additional sensory experiences and comprehension like dominoes
Bottom-up processing
This part of processing is guided by knowledge/expectation and belef
(you seee what you you want and not what is out there)
Top-down processing
Where are different frequencies of sound coded into varying nerve impulses?
Basilar Membrane
What is the theory that says we sleep to restore body and mind
Recuperation THeory
What Theory says that sleep was formed to protect us and conserve energy
Evolutionary THeory
Sleep is a ___ cycle
90 min.
What happens when there is a peak of epinephrine and norepinephrine
THinking and Memory Peak as well
What do we call the content that we remember?
Manifest COntent
What do we call the symbolic content with unconscious desires?
Latent Content
difficulty falling alseep
Dreams strengthen memory
Memory Hypothesis
Name of Stage 1 (lasts 5 minutes) transition from wakefullness to sleep
Hypnogogic Sleep
Makes Neurons that are usually inhibited likely to fire/ occurs as a result of depressant use
Barbiturates, alcohol, and antianxiety drugs are all types of
Tolerance to one drug causes tolerance to similar drugs
Cross Tolerance
Date rape drug
Slows down the central nervous systelm and decreases activity and awareness
Ecstasy, Ritalin, Epinephrine, Nicotine and caffeine are?
Which drug affects the body's ability to thermoregulate?
What causes sound waves into the auditory canal?
the Pina
The awarenss of our own existence, thoughts and feelings
what are the 5 stages of consciousness?
Hypnosis, dreaming, sleep, meditation, and drugs/alcohol
Most likely to induce dependence also increases attention and awareness?
side effcts include: decreased appetite increased arousal/energy increaser motor activity
Coke is a type of?
What is faster acting and more intense then cocaine?
-Cross BBB
-More addictive then Coke
Crack Cocaine
Evolutionary, Restorative THeory, and the idea that sleep facilitates learning are?
3 general theories that have been proposed to explain function of sleep
WHat is a hormone that helps promote sleep?
2 characteristics of chronic substance abuse?
Tolerance & Withdrawal
A CNS depressant that acts as an analgesic and produces a sense of euphoria and relaxation?
Ex: heroin
Chronic use of ___ can suppress the body's production of endorphins
___ occus when repeated exposure decreases responsiveness
____ occurs when repeated exposure to a stimulus increases responsiveness
Rods are everwhere except for the ?
the ____ theory of color vision says that the eye contains 3 kinds of color sensors
Trichomatic Theory
BRain Responds to a ____ of colors, not individual cones
JND is a kind of?
What do you call a physical event that is strong enough to be noticed?
What is the smallest amount of a stimulus needed to notice that the stimulant is present at all ?
Absolute Threshold
What law says the greater the magnitude the greater the extra amount must be noticed
Weber's LAw
2 key concepts that explain how signals are detected or missed?
sensitivity and bias
How do we distinguish signal from noise
signal detection theory
how your brain take in light so you can see?
What causes rods and cones to fire?
Skin receptors send messages to ?
Somatosensory Cortex
LImbic system deals with ?
Emotion and Memory
Attention affects?
Sensory and perception
What sends messages to brain?
Auditory Nerve
What is it called when 1 object partially covers another but our brain sees it as 1 on top of the other?
Occlusion cue