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### 92 Cards in this Set

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 Which reinforcement is most resistant to extinction? Partial Reinforcement Which Schedule is based on a specified number of desired responses Ratio Schedule What Partial Reinforcement Schedule is Based on Time? Interval Schedules If a rat receives reinforcement once every 10th bar press it is on a Fixed ratio Schedule Which intervals produce a scalloped pattern on the graph of cumulative responses? Fixed Interval Schedules If you took a study break after approximately an hour of studying, but sometimes after 45 minutes, sometimes after an hour and 15 minutes, sometimes after half an hour, sometimes after an hour and a half, the average would be every hour, and so you would be on a variable interval 60-minute schedule. Called Variable Interval Schedule If a rat receives a pellet once every 10 min. then it is on a? Fixed Interval Schedule every 10 minutes. What is often called the “gambling reinforcement schedule? Variable Ratio Schedule What Method decreases the chance that a behavior will occur? Punishment I spank you because you swear, you decrease the amount that you swear What Increases the Chances of a behavior occurring? Positive and negative reinforcement I give you candy when you behave, you behave more often I shock you every time you press the wrong bar, you begin to press the right bar Which law say marks that are near one another tend to be grouped together Gestalt Law of Proximity we see XX XX as two groups and we see XX XX XX as three groups What law do we group things that fall along a smooth curve or a straight line together Law of Continuity we see _ _ _ as a single line In which laws do we tend to close gaps ? Law of Closure Law that says that a single shape is grouped together? Good form What is it called when the items you see look the same even though the sensory images striking the eyes may change? Perceptual constancy When you see an object as the same size even when it is at different distances, so that its image has different sizes Size Constancy Colors remain the same even when the light changes? Color constancy When an objects shape looks the same from different angles? Shape Constancy What do you call the difference between the images on 2 eyes? Retinal Disparity Texture gradient is what type of cue? Monocular cue What is the name of the senses that perceive the body and its position in space (kinesthetic sense, vestibular sense, tuch, temperature sensitivity etc. called? Somasthetic Senses what is a sense of balance? Vestibular Sense Awareness of where the limbs are and how they move Kinesthetic Sense Which two specializes cells have kinesthetic sense? Tendons (the material that connects muscles to bones) Muscles The inner ear is used for hearing and? balance What’s your body’s largest organ? the skin Inability to feel pain is worse then the inability to ? Smell Odors What is the name for The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time Frequency contains the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs. Inner ear ___ refers to the height of the peaks in a light wave. Amplitude Your ___ is (are) a sheet of tissue at the back of your eye. Retina ___ refers to how deep a color appears. Saturation ___ allows you to pick out a particular characteristic, object, or event. Selective Attention Theory that different colors can inhibit perception of other colors Opponent Process Theory Variations in frequency are called? Pitch Variations in amplitude are called? Loudness 2 chemical senses that detect teh presence of particlar molecules Smell and Taste Influences emotional reactions and sexual behavior Pheromones Shorter waves correspond to? Higher Frequencies What part of the eye gives us the sharpest images? Fovea There are No Rods and Cones present in this part of your eye Blind Spot What chemical responds to light Rhodospin In which law do we tend to group marks that look alike together XXXxxx as 2 groups Law of Similarity What creates the illusion of distance Monocular/static cues Sometimes triggers additional sensory experiences and comprehension like dominoes Bottom-up processing This part of processing is guided by knowledge/expectation and belef (you seee what you you want and not what is out there) Top-down processing Where are different frequencies of sound coded into varying nerve impulses? Basilar Membrane What is the theory that says we sleep to restore body and mind Recuperation THeory What Theory says that sleep was formed to protect us and conserve energy Evolutionary THeory Sleep is a ___ cycle 90 min. What happens when there is a peak of epinephrine and norepinephrine THinking and Memory Peak as well What do we call the content that we remember? Manifest COntent What do we call the symbolic content with unconscious desires? Latent Content difficulty falling alseep Insomnia Dreams strengthen memory Memory Hypothesis Name of Stage 1 (lasts 5 minutes) transition from wakefullness to sleep Hypnogogic Sleep Makes Neurons that are usually inhibited likely to fire/ occurs as a result of depressant use Disinhibition Barbiturates, alcohol, and antianxiety drugs are all types of Depressants Tolerance to one drug causes tolerance to similar drugs Cross Tolerance Date rape drug Rohypnol Slows down the central nervous systelm and decreases activity and awareness Depressant Ecstasy, Ritalin, Epinephrine, Nicotine and caffeine are? Amphetamines Which drug affects the body's ability to thermoregulate? Ecstasy What causes sound waves into the auditory canal? the Pina The awarenss of our own existence, thoughts and feelings Consciousness what are the 5 stages of consciousness? Hypnosis, dreaming, sleep, meditation, and drugs/alcohol Most likely to induce dependence also increases attention and awareness? side effcts include: decreased appetite increased arousal/energy increaser motor activity Stimulants Coke is a type of? Stimulant What is faster acting and more intense then cocaine? -Cross BBB -More addictive then Coke Crack Cocaine Evolutionary, Restorative THeory, and the idea that sleep facilitates learning are? 3 general theories that have been proposed to explain function of sleep WHat is a hormone that helps promote sleep? Melatonin 2 characteristics of chronic substance abuse? Tolerance & Withdrawal A CNS depressant that acts as an analgesic and produces a sense of euphoria and relaxation? Narcotics Ex: heroin Chronic use of ___ can suppress the body's production of endorphins Narcotics ___ occus when repeated exposure decreases responsiveness Habituation ____ occurs when repeated exposure to a stimulus increases responsiveness sensitization Rods are everwhere except for the ? Fovea the ____ theory of color vision says that the eye contains 3 kinds of color sensors Trichomatic Theory BRain Responds to a ____ of colors, not individual cones Mixture JND is a kind of? Threshold What do you call a physical event that is strong enough to be noticed? Threshold What is the smallest amount of a stimulus needed to notice that the stimulant is present at all ? Absolute Threshold What law says the greater the magnitude the greater the extra amount must be noticed Weber's LAw 2 key concepts that explain how signals are detected or missed? sensitivity and bias How do we distinguish signal from noise signal detection theory how your brain take in light so you can see? Transduction What causes rods and cones to fire? Light Skin receptors send messages to ? Somatosensory Cortex LImbic system deals with ? Emotion and Memory Attention affects? Sensory and perception What sends messages to brain? Auditory Nerve What is it called when 1 object partially covers another but our brain sees it as 1 on top of the other? Occlusion cue