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128 Cards in this Set

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What source gives you info about mental disorders?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)
What are the 4 classes of mental disorders?
Schizophrenic; paranoid; mood; antisocial personality
Schizophrenic disorder
paranoid, hallucinations, delusions – ongoing for longer than 6 months. Speech is disorganized along with behavior.
Paranoid disorder
most closely related with to criminal/violent behavior. Delusional disorders – more based in reality, not as far fetched.
Mood disorder
may not adequately comprehend consequences of behavior, or may not even care.
Antisocial personality disorder
less emotional, callous
What type of disorder does Axis 1 of the DSMIV show? Which includes what 2 disorders?
psychotic; schizophrenia and paranoid
What type of disorder does the Axis 2 of the DSMIV show? Which includes what 2 disorders?
personality; less serious mood and antisocial personality
What % of offenders will get some sort of mental diagnoses
50-100%
40-80% of offenders diagnosed with _____. Making it the most ______ diagnosed disorder.
ASPD; frequently
What % of inmates will receive a major psychiatric disorder? This does not include what disorder?
10-15%; ASPD
____% of inmates labeled schizophrenic. Mostly what type?
17%; paranoid
____% of offenders are diagnosed with manic depression. Also known as what?
2-3%; bipolar
T/F Most inmates are NOT labeled with a major psychiatric disorder
True
When can doctor/patient confidentiality be broken? What 2 legal terms display the doctors obligation?
When a patient may inflict harm on themselves or others;
1.A preponderance of the evidence
2. Clear and convincing proof
how do Dr.'s use the "reasonable care approach"
they balance issue of reasonable care to protect victims and confidentiality
60-70% of Dr.'s breaches of confidentiality turn out to be what?
false positives (prediction of violent behavior doesn't happen)
Why do physicians often over predict dangerousness? Validate this by looking at "overall behavior".
-difficult to predict infrequent behavior; if look at overall behavior, even violent people are infrequently so
____ is higher for multiple offenders
recidivism
What is the best predictor of violent behavior?
past violent behavior
juveniles with history of violence more likely for future _____.
violence
How does history of mental illness vary from current mental illness at a predictor of violence?
history doesn't necessarily predict it but current mental illness does equal significant future violence
What disorder seems most connected to violence? However they are not dangerous to the public because most violence is directed toward whom?
schizophrenia; themselves and family
T/F 90% w/ severe mental disorders are NOT violent
True
presence of _____ is best predictor of violence
mental illness
violence risk assessment guide(VRAG): includes history of what? includes best predictor of violence risk which is what? What does it suggest about the prediction of future violence?
alcohol abuse; PCLR score for psycopathy; even present mental illness doesn’t predict violence
What risk assessment instrument did the McArthur researchers develop? What can in help clinicians do?
The Multiple Interative Classification Tree (ICT); identify low, average, or high risk individuals
What research helped the McArthur researchers to come up with the ICT? How did they measure the patients before they left the institute?
followed 1000 mental patients for a year after they left the institute; risk factors (134)
In summary, what did the McArthur researchers find out about predictors of violence?
no single predictor; combination of a lot of risk factors
What happened in the Tarasoff case? What law came out of this case? Is it still instated today?
Tarasoff was killed by Poddar (the patient) after he told his physician his fantasy of killing this particular woman; duty to warn/protect; most states have done away with the law because it is too hard for a physician to measure dangerousness of a patient
Murder accounts for what percent of crimes? Index crimes?
1-2%; .2%
availability heuristic of murders
we think there are more murder than there are because they get a lot of media coverage b/c of the loss of a life
What is close to but not considered murder?
aggravated assault
What are the 2 types of homicides according to the book?
murder and non-negligent manslaughter
define murder
the unlawful killing of one human being by another with malice afterthought, either expressed or implied
1st degree murder
-murder committed with willful and pre-meditated intent
2nd degree murder; give an example
lacks the premeditation but still intention and unlawful; crime of passion (wife finds husband cheating and kills him)
non-negligent manslaughter
no intention to kill
negligent manslaughter: what is it similar to? How is it different? give an example.
similar to 2nd degree murder; not premeditated but intent changes within the act; ex: husband wants to scare wife and starts choking her, loses control, and intent changes from scare to kill.
mass murder: what is it? who usually is the offender? give an example of a mass murderer.
occurs with one offender in one place; typically mentally disordered; Charles Whitman climbed up school tower and started shooting random ppl
much more likely have a ______ than a serial kill
mental mass murder
What do mass murders typically do once they are done killing people?
Kill themselves
family mass murderer: one example of this is a ______; why is this separate from normal mass murders?
family annihilator; statistical purposes
Spree murder; what do they lack?
typical more than one location but only one event; an emotional cool down period
A serial murder is classified by what? Are they usually premeditated? give an example.
3 or more locations of murders by the same perpetrator/s; yes; Ted Bundy
___% of offenders are male; ___% of victims are male; ___% of offenders are unknown
75; 65; 30
Most offenders are between the ages of ___ and ___. However, black offenders are between the ages of ___ and ___.
20-29; 18-22
About 75% of offenders are what sex/race?
male; african american
92% of black victims are killed by what race of offenders? 85% of white victims are killed by what race of offenders?
black; black
serious crimes are more apt to be committed by what level of socioeconomic status?
poor
What fraction of murder victims are related or acquainted in some way to the offender?
1/2
What gender is more likely to get murdered by a stranger? How much more likely? Why?
Men; twice; because they put themselves in more dangerous situations
____ % all murders are committed with what type of weapon? What % are handguns? Knives?
70%; firearm; 85%; less than 13%
2 reasons why men won't file abuse charges against their wife
1) embarrassment 2) wife punching husband isn’t probably going to hurt him very much
___ of women survey were rape victims, ___% of men
8%; .3%
T/F women are just as likely to be verbally abusive as men
True
How has a policeman's role in domestic violence changed over the years?
They used to have to witness the violence but now can arrest on probable cause
___ - ___% in the last 30 years in domestic abuse.
35-50%
number of male victims of domestic abuse has decreased why?
we have given women other avenues (shelters, more likely to get education/have own income) to get out of it than killing husband
Has husbands abusing their wives decreased? What is one option that could be used to decrease this?
No; anger management
What are the 2 stages of violence? What happens in each?
Tension building phase: a few arguments build up into lots of arguments and they increase in intensity; some physical intimidation until there is actually a physical event
Reconciliation: I’m so sorry I lost my temper, etc. Usually actually mean it.
What is the idea of the cycle of violence?
does abuse in childhood/past make you more likely to abuse or be the victim of abuse yourself
What are the 4 treatments for abuse?
arrest, anger management techniques, restraining orders, exposure reduction theory
60% of women with orders will suffer abuse at least ___ more time/s.
1
What is the exposure reduction theory? Which gender of offender does it have a greater effect on?
reduce the # of exposures that women have toward violent situations and provide women with alternatives
-a greater effect on whether wives kill husbands
Spontaneous Domestic Homicides: What usuaully happens? organized or disorganized scene? what is "undoing"/given an example.
weapon laying out in scene/ hit her with an object and fled; disorganized—didn’t alter scene to lead the police astray; Undoing: the murder is remorseful (ex: taking body and putting on the couch or covering with a blanket)
Staged Domestic homicide: What usually happens? organized or disorganized scene?
crime was planned and more organized crime scene (clean up blood, dispose of body, try to make death look like an accident or like someone else did it
Typical serial homicide offender. What percent are female offenders?
White male, fits normally into society; 16%
What is investigative profiling? How can the killer throw the investigator off?
-compare crime scenes in different areas to see if the crime could have been committed by 1 person

-possible that they will change it up a little and lose their signature
What are the most likely victims for serial killers? Name Bundy and Dahmer's typical victims.
Children between ages of 8 and 16 are most likely to be victims
Bundy: straight long hair parted in middle females
Dahmer: all male; age and race varied
On average serial killers about ___ people for year; 1st murder usually occurs between ___-___ yrs old; criminal backround/previous crimes.
4; 24-40; Peeping tom, exposure, minor crimes
Why is it possible that serial murders are motivated by sex? What do some believe is a stronger motivation?
They have had very few normal sexual experiences; power and control is more important to them than sex.
Why do serial killers seek a power relationship?
lots of failure in their life and they have frustration
what is "magical thinking"
don’t usually suffer from delusions but they get caught in their own fantasy world even though they can speak in a coherent rational way
In a serial killers case there sometimes an intense relationship between ____ and ____.
mother and son
What are 3 other common themes for reasons serial killers kill?
revenge, enjoyment, sexual stimulation
What is a reason a lot of women kill their husbands?
money
What fraction of males use strangulation/suffocation to kill? mutilation?
1/3; 1/2
Who is Ted Bundy? What did he do to his victims? Why might this be?
drove the VW bug and was the college coed killer; rape, strangulation, sex after death; naive about sex and very few sexual relationships
What 2 things showed Bundy was smart and cunning?
He has a relationship with a women during the crimes and talked his way out of things she found; he escaped from prison 2 times
What did Bundy do in the trial? How did he try to confuse the jury/judge?
He defended himself; changed his appearance throughout the trial
What is the main killing method of female serial killers? What is the typical senario in which this occurs?
poison; nurse to patient
What was Dorthea Puente motivated by and what did she do?
monetary gain; killed 9 elders in boarding house and cashed SS checks as if they were alive to gain the money
how many women have male accomplices in serial killings
over half
What is a disciple killer? Who is an example of this?
A charasmatic leader; Charles Manson
Name 4 aspects of Manson's past before he committed the crime as a disciple killer?
-mother was bad news; 16 when she had him; would leave him at days/weeks at a time
-no father figure
-divorced, jail, began pimping
-committed a LOT of crimes: stolen credit cards, cars, etc.
What was the actress who's death he is famour for? What would he do with is followers?
Sharon Tate; have sex with all the women and have them all committ murder
What did Manson tell them to brainwash them? What was his one true love?
He was Jesus Christ and would lead them to the Golden City; The Beatles
What is the visionary type of murderer? What does his crime scene often look like?
is driven by voices or visions that demand a particular group of ppl be killed (ex: prostitutes or homosexuals) usually thinks they are directed by God; chaotic, abundance of physical evidence
Mission-oriented type of murderer.
Same as visionary but doesn't have visions or voices and self-determines the group that should be killed.
Hedonistic type of murderer. 3 types and how each gets pleasure.
strives for pleasure and thrills and feels people are objects for their own enjoyment;
1. lust: sexual gratification
2. thrill: induce pain or a terrified reaction from the victim
3. comfort: acquire objects that provide comfortable lifestyle
Family Annihilator; give an example
Usually oldest male in family and kills the entire family at once; abuses alcohol and probably in a state of severe depression
Ex: Colbert, 39, New Hampshire suffocated children and strangled wife; was going to commit suicide but got caught by police and confessed
Disgruntled employee
Feel they were a victim of a great injustice at the workplace and decide to retaliate; sometimes on some kind of medication or diagnosed with paranoia
Type I workplace crime: What is it? What is the most common Type I (with %)? Example.
no relationship to the workplace;most common 60-80% is robbery and the murder happens within the crime;
Ex: bombing of abortion clinics
Type II workplace crime
the offender is a client/costumer of the establishment
Type III workplace crime
offender is an employee
Type VI workplace crime
indirect relationship; Ex: friend/wife work at the establishment
Set and Run killers' motive:
Revenge or want to be famous anonymously or even for profit
Oklahoma City bombing: Who did it? Why did they say they did it? How many were killed? Do they show remorse?
-Timothy McFay (James and Terry Nichols co-conspirators)
-War changed his outlook on government + Wayco case where he felt the gov’t wasn’t good
-168 people killed in 1995 bombing
-Hasn’t expressed any remorse to this day
The Tylenol Mass Killer: What happened? What safety procedure came out of this killing? How many people did they kill?
-Someone stole bottles of the shelf and replaced the tablets with poison (ironic because 3 family members die in one family)
-All the child proof stuff/etc came out of this
-Killed 7 people
What was the criminal profile for the expected Tylenol mass killer?
Probably the perpetrator was an employee or previous employee and believed to be a white male in his 20s and lived in Chicago around that time
What did Richard Speck do? Who survived and how? What was witnessed in prison that changed people's outlook on prison security?
He killed a group of nurses who lived in a dorm at nursing school; Cora rolled under the bed when he walked out of the room bc he didn't count them; sex with men, drugs, female hormones all caught on tape
M’Naghten rule is also known as:
the right and wrong test
M’Naghten rule emphasizes 2 cognitive elements:
1. being aware and knowing what one was doing at the time of the illegal act
2. knowing or realizing right from wrong in the moral sense
M’Naghten rule does not cover what specific situation?
an irresistible impulse: situations where people “simply could not help themselves”; knew right from wrong
Durham rule
-mental illness must play a necessary role in the act and person cannot be held responsible if unlawful act is a product of a mental disorder
Problem with Durham rule
so simple that once the definition of “mental illness” was found to be blurry, a defendant could be excused after a mental health expert deemed them “mentally ill”
Brawner/ALI
must be demonstrated that the disease/mental defect substantially and directly: 2 things
1. influenced the defendant’s mental or emotional processes
2. impaired their ability to control behavior
In what 2 ways is the Brawner/ALI different from M’Nagten:
1. recognizes partial responsibility for criminal conduct
2. the possibility of an irresistible impulse beyond one’s control
What is the caveat paragraph in the Brawner/ALI?
intended to disallow the insanity defense for criminal psychopaths who persistently violate social mores/the law
Not guilty by reason of insanity. Who got away with this plea famously?
-state of mind at the time of the crime
-Hinkley got away with NGRI which caused many states to reconsider their NGRI laws
Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984 changed the Brawner/ALI in 3 ways:
1. abolished the irresistible impulse test
2. tighten the requirement to a total lack of ability to appreciate that what they did was wrong
3. mental disease or defect must be severe (esp. personality disorders)
Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984 do as far as testimony of mental health officials in court?
barred mental health professionals from giving their ultimate opinion whether the defendant was sane or not; can still testify and give diagnoses
What does guilty but mentally ill imply? What was in mainly created to do?
-holds the defendant blameworthy for the offense, but recognizes the presence of a mental disorder
-to reduce the number of insanity acquittals
The GBMI verdict was unsuccessful in what 3 ways?
1. acquittals have not reduced
2. GBMI have longer sentences that “sane” ppl of the same crime
3. the promise of treatment in the verdict is unfulfilled
" sufficient ability to consult with their lawyer and a reasonable degree of understanding of the proceedings”
incompetence to stand trial
Modus Operandi (MO)
refers to the actions and procedures an offender engages in to commit a crime successfully
personation/signature
anything that goes beyond what is necessary to commit the crime
staging
refers to the intentional alteration of a crime scene prior to the arrival of the police, and it is sometimes done by someone other than the perpetrator
organized crime scene
(4 aspects)
-planning/premeditation
-victim/evidence has been moved
-victim is targeted stranger
-reflects control
disorganized crime scene
-spontaneous,unplanned
-body/evidence left at scene
-victim/location known
-sloppy, random scene
Psychological profiling
broad behavioral realm of tendencies, foibles, faults, likes and dislikes, interests, strengths, etc.
Criminal profiling
process of identifying personality traits, behavioral patterns, geographic habits, and demographic features of an offender based on characteristics of the crime
Geographical profiling
method of identifying the area of probable residence or the probable area of the next crime of an unknown offender based on the location of and the spatial relationships amound various crime sites
equivocal death analysis/reconstructive psychological evaluation; aka; 2 ways it differs from criminal profiling
the reconstructions of the emotional life, behavioral patterns, and cognitive feature of a deceased person; psychological autopsy;
1. constructed on a dead person
2. identitiy of the person is already known
racial profiling
police initiated action that relies on the race rather than the behavior of and individual
What is Criminal Geographic Targeting (CGT) used for?
ultimate objective is to pinpoint the location of the offender's residence/base of operations
4 hunting patterns of serial offenders according to Rossmo:
1. hunter: intentionally seeks victims in their area
2. poacher: goes father away from their neighborhood
3. troller: waits for victims to come to them during regular activities
4. trapper: creates situations to intice victim to come to him