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53 Cards in this Set

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Cognition
mental activities associated w/ thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Cognitive Psychologist Study..
Concept Formation
Problem Solving
Decision Making
Judgement Formation
Concept
mental grouping of simialr objects, events, ideas, or people
Prototype
mental image or best example of a category
Algorithm
methodical, logical rule, very tedious, guarentees solving the problem
Heuristic
simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements
Insight
sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
Mental Set
tendency to approach a problem in a particular way
-something especially successful in the past
Functional Fixedness
tendency to think of things only in terms w/ what their ususally used for
Represenative Heuristic
Professor/Truck Driver Example
Availability Heuristic
estimated likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
EX) Airplane Crash/ Car Crash
Framing
the way the issue is posed
25% fat 75% lean
Belief Bias
tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
EX)Chickens don't have feathers
Belief Perserverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Language
Spoken, Written, or Signed words and the ways we combine them as we think and communicate
Phoneme
In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
Morpheme
In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word (EX) Prefix, Suffix
Grammar
In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
Semantics
the set of rules by which we derive a meaning from morphemes,words,sentences in a given language; also the study of meaning
Syntax
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Babbling Stage
Beg. about 4 months child spontaneouly utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
One-Word Stage
the stage in speech devolpment, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
Two-Word Stage
Beg. about age 2, stage in speech devolpment during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statments
Telegraphic Speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram,
"Go car" using mostly nouns and verbs omitting other words
Chomsky's (LAD)
Language Acquisition Device
our capacity for developing language is natural and quick because we come equipped with a sort of switch box. As we hear the language the switches are programmed naturally
Linguistic Determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Intelligence
is the ability to learn from experiences, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
Emotional Intelligence
the ability to percieve, understand, manage, and use emotions
Creativity
one's ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
Intelligence Test
a method for assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using nemerical scores
Mental Age
Devised by Binet; chronological age that most typically correspinds to a given level of performance. 8 yr old doing 8yr old things
Stanford-Binet
widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test
(IQ)
origanally defined as the ratio between mental age and chronological age (X by 100)
Aptitude Test
a test designed to predict a person's future preformance, aptitude is the capacity to learn
Achievement Test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance(nonverbal) Subtest
Standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the perfomance of a pretested standardization group
Normal Curve
Bell Shape Curve, most scores fall on the averages and fewer scores on the extremes
Reliability
the extent in which a test yields consistent results
Validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
Predictive Validity
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
Motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned througout a species and is unlearned
Homeostasis
Feeling normal physically and mentally
Drive-Reduction Theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
Incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Maslows's Hierarchy of Needs
1) PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS
2) SAFETY NEEDS
3) BELONGINGNESS AND LOVE NEED
4) ESTEEM NEEDS
5) SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS
Glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its low, we feel hunger
Anorexia
Normal Weighted person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
Bulimia
Episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
Refractory Period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
Sex
physiologically based motive, like hunger, affected by learning and values
Sexual Response Cycle
Excitement
Plateau
Orgasm
Resolution